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SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators
April 18, 2017 | By Dr. Harrison J. Son @ Netmanias (tech@netmanias.com)
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Jaap (Tildro Research) via LinkedIn 2017-05-12 11:16:15

Will the operators be dis-intermediated (again)?

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Netmanias.2017.04.24.sdn.nfv.strategies and progresses in network operators
1. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators Harrison J. Son CEO at Netmanias.com son@netmanias.com www.netmanias.com About NMC Consulting Group/Netmanias was founded in year 2002, and is an advanced, professional network consulting company which is specialized for IP Network areas (e.g., FTTH, Metro Ethernet, IP/MPLS and SDN/NFV), service areas (e.g. eMBMS, IPTV, IMS and CDN), and lastly, wireless network areas (e.g. 4G LTE, 5G and Wi-Fi). Copyright © 2002-2017 NMC Consulting Group. All rights reserved.
2. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 2 Table of Contents 1. Top NFV/SDN Use Case in Operators’ Networks: vCPE 2. What’s trending in NFV/SDN application to Operator’s Networks 3. Case Analysis: Enterprise vCPE 3-1: Distributed vCPE 3-2: vCPE on Aggregation Switch or PE 3-3: Centralized vCPE 3-4: Centralized vCPE – Why SDN? 3-5: Distributed vCPE vs Centralized vCPE 3-6: Hybrid = Best 3-7: Discussion 03 09 12 14 24 29 31 52 59 62 Released in December, 2016
3. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 3 1. Top NFV/SDN Use Case in Operators’ Networks: vCPE
4. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 4 IHS/Infonetics, Top NFV and SDN Deployment Use Cases, 2016/04 There are many use cases where service providers are intending to offer commercial services based on SDN and/or NFV. Our top use cases are virtual CPE (vCPE)—both consumer and the vE-CPE enterprise version. (Based on a study of global 22 network operators ) NFV/SDN Use Case in Operators’ Networks (1/5) Metro/BackboneAccess Residential Enterprise Mobile CO/PoP Core Datacenter Telco Network Function (PNF) Gi-LAN RG (DHCP/NAT/…) Router/FW/DPI/... BS IMS Internet Dedicated appliances EPC Telco Network Function (PNF) BNG PE Telco Network Function (PNF) Dedicated appliances Dedicated appliances 1. Business vE-CPE 2. Residential vCPE 1. Business vE-CPE 2. Residential vCPE 3. Mobile Core vEPC 4. IP Edge vPE4. IP Edge vPE Service Chaining Most Important NFV Use Cases for Operational Efficiencies Most Important NFV Use Cases for Capex Reduction 1 2 3 4
5. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 5 Sdxcentral 2016 Network operators selected vCPE, vEPC, SGi-LAN Service Chaining, and vRAN as the most effective solutions in applying SDN/NFV to the networks NFV/SDN Use Case in Operators’ Networks (2/5) Metro/BackboneAccess Residential Enterprise Mobile CO/PoP Core Datacenter Telco Network Function (PNF) Gi-LAN RG (DHCP/NAT/…) Router/FW/DPI/... BS IMS Internet Dedicated appliances EPC Telco Network Function (PNF) BNG PE Telco Network Function (PNF) Dedicated appliances Dedicated appliances 2 1. vCPE 2. vEPC 3. Gi-LAN 4. vRAN 34 1 https://www.sdxcentral.com/articles/analysis/sgi- gi-lan-efficiency/2016/06/
6. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 6 Wipro 2015 vCPE and vEPC are chosen by Wipro 2015 as the two areas that will have benefits of greatest TCO saving (by more than 40%) and fastest realization of SDN/NFV. NFV/SDN Use Case in Operators’ Networks (3/5) Metro/BackboneAccess Residential Enterprise Mobile CO/PoP Core Datacenter Telco Network Function (PNF) Gi-LAN RG (DHCP/NAT/…) Router/FW/DPI/... BS IMS Internet Dedicated appliances EPC Telco Network Function (PNF) BNG PE Telco Network Function (PNF) Dedicated appliances Dedicated appliances 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 45% vCPE vEPC vRAN
7. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 7 NFV/SDN Use Case in Operators’ Networks (4/5) SOURCE: Verizon, Leveraging NFV for Profitable Managed Services: SD-WAN, Security & vCPE 2016.04
8. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 8 NFV/SDN Use Case in Operators’ Networks (5/5) SOURCE: ADVA, Total Cost of Ownership Calculator, FSP 150vSE (X.86 server case, 2016 * Pricing based on 1,000 customers Mid Rage Router 1G NID SBC Firewall Customer Premise $1,000 $2,000 $2,400 $1,200 Dedicated H/W Appliances 2.0 Router VNF (vRouter) SBC VNF (vSBC) Firewall VNF (vFW) Carrier Ethernet VNF (vNID) X.86 Server $900 $600 $898 $900 $420 SDNCNFV-O $580,000 $160,000 X.86 Server $5,000 Customer Premise $6,600,000 $3,558,000 When using existing dedicated H/W appliances When using NFV/SDN Customer 1 Customer 1,000 ... Customer 1 Customer 1,000 ... SDNCNFV-O
9. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 9 2. What’s trending in NFV/SDN application to Operator’s Networks
10. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 10 Trends Backbone Network Access Network Residential Enterprise Mobile Edge PoP Core Datacenter Virtualization & Go up to Edge Cloudification & Go down to Edge Cloud NFV SDN <Technology> Telco Network Function <Function> ... NVF and SDN: Out of DC and into operators’ networks
11. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 11 Trends Ultimate purposes of technological evolution: i) Save money: less spending in deployment and operation, ii) Make money: discover new revenue stream (VNFaaS) [Residential] L3 CPE (RG) at customer home is virtualized - SW (DHCP, NAT and Routing) is separated from HW (modem, switch and AP). HW remains, but SW is moved onto X.86 at edge PoP. [Enterprise] Network appliance (router, FW, WOC, IPS, etc.) at enterprise is virtualized as VNF. 1) Centralized vCPE: SW (VNF) is moved onto the cloud of edge PoP, leaving only simple L2 CPE behind at the enterprise premise. 2) Distributed vCPE: VNFs are moved onto X.86 at the enterprise premise. [Mobile] BBUs at cell site are moved onto edge PoP, and virtualized on X.86 server Mobile core is also virtualized, moving eEPC down to edge PoP Services at the top of Gi are also moved down to edge PoP BackboneAccess Residential Enterprise Mobile Edge PoP Core Datacenter Cloud NFV SDN n AS IS EPC RG (DHCP/NAT/…) Router/FW/WOC/... BBU Services (FW/DPI/MVO/SBC/…) VPC Tenant A Tenant B BackboneAccess Residential Enterprise Mobile Edge PoP Core Datacenter Cloud NFV SDN EPC RG (DHCP/NAT/…) Router/FW/WOC... BBU Service (FW/DPI/MVO/Caching/SBC/…) VPC Tenant A Tenant B IMS Internet IMS Internet VNF 5G 4G . . . . . . . . . SDNC NFV-O SDNC NFV-O L2 CPE L2 CPE Virtualization VNF DistributionVNF Centralization vCPE vCPE vBBU MEC vEPC VNF = +Network Appliance H/W S/W VNF (Virtualized Network Function) VNF VNF VNF Single purpose dedicated network appliance n TO BE Go up to Edge Go down to Edge
12. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 12 3. Case Analysis: Enterprise vCPE
13. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 13 Enterprise vCPE FW (Juniper)Router (Cisco) WAN acc. (Riverbed) Customer Premise ONT/NID vSwitch X.86 server Physical Network Appliances: Multiple pieces of equipment serving a single purpose Virtual CPE: Multiple appliances virtualized on X.86 server W ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone MPLS L3 VPN DC Access ER/PE Issues: Where in the operators’ network should the virtual CPE go? ONT/NID ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone MPLS L3 VPN DC Access ER/PE Branch Office/SMB Customer Premise Customer Premise Edge PoP aggregation W vRouter vWOC vFW VNFs
14. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 14 3-1: Distributed vCPE Router IPS(Radware) FW(Juniper) Router(Cisco)PNF DPI(Sandvine) WANacc. (Riverbed) ❶ X.86 server L2 CPE L2 CPE VNF ❷ Server-Switch VNF ❸ X.86 server NID VNF Access Network Core NetworkEdge PoPCustomer Premise vCPE Carrier Ethernet PON, DSL Lease Line, etc. L2 SW (aggregation) ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC Physical Network Appliances (PNFs) NFVI on Premise W W W 2.0 NID AT&T, Verizon Masergy W WAN Acceleration VNF Traffic heading to Branch Office Internet traffic Switch X.86 Server ❶❸ X.86 only ❷ Server-Switch Relative Cost $ Low. *For high-capacity 10Gbps server, comparison should be made with Server-Switch $$ High. Traffic Steering (per application traffic) No. All traffic passes the server (adding load): The number of VNFs must be limited, or high-performance CPU is required. Yes Ex.) WAN-accelerated traffic goes to X.86 module while general Internet traffic goes to the Internet. Survivability No communication possible if server fails Communication available because all traffic by-passes when server fails
15. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 15 · All-in-one (NID + X.86 module) distributed vCPE equipment · Commercially launched by all CPE vendors in 2015 ~ 2016 2015 2016 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Juniper NFX250 ADVA FSP 150 ProVM Ciena 3938vi RAD ETX-2i MRV OS-V20 Telco Systems CloudMetro 10 VNF: 2~5 VNF: 4~6 Further Reading - AT&T's CORD - the ultimate architecture born after decades of innovation in the communications network What’s available in the market http://www.netmanias.com/en/?m=view&id=blog&no=10408 Enterprise Distributed vCPE - What’s available in the market
16. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 16 Enterprise Distributed vCPE – Vendors Vendor vCPE Server CPU Released in NFV MANO Customers Juniper NFX250 6-core Intel Xeon-D 2015.11 In-house: Contrail Service Orchestration (Contrail Systems Acquisition in 2012) AT&T RAD ETX-2i NID Intel® Core™ i7 and Intel® Atom™ processors 2015.03 In-house: RADview D-NFV Orchestrator Partners: HPE, Juniper Contrail, Ciena BluePlanet Centurylink MRV OS-V20 Intel X.86 2016.05 In-house: Pro-Vision ADVA FSP 150 ProVM Intel high performance 4/8 core processor 2015.10 In-house: Ensemble Orchestrator (Overture Acquisition in 2016) ADVA FSP 150vSE (X.86 server) Multi-core Intel X.86 architecture 2014.06 “ MASERGY Ciena 3938vi Intel X.86 2015.06 In-house: Blueplanet (Cyan Acquisition in 2015) Telco Systems CloudMetro 10/100 Intel X.86 2016.05 In-house: EdgeGenie Orchestrator™ CE 2.0 & SDN/NFV Management System Alcatel NSG (X.86 server) Intel X.86 In-house: VSD (Virtual Service Directory) vCPE at Customer Premise: NID with built-in server, and servers Vendor Supported VNFs Juniper vRouter(Juniper), vSRX(Juniper), Cisco, Fortinet, Riverbed, Viptela,… RAD vRouter(HP), Encryption, vFW, vSBC, vWOC MRV CE2.0 VNF, ADVA CE2.0 VNF (ADVA), vRouter(Brocade, HP), Encryption(Certes), vFW(Fortinet, Check Point), vWOC(ipanema, Riverbed), DPI(Qosmos), vSBC(Sonus) Ciena vRouter(Brocade), Encryption(Certes), vFW(Fortinet), Caching(Qwilt), Versa, etc. Telco Systems Cisco, Brocade, Juniper, Silver Peak, Riverbed, Fortinet, Check Point, Audio Codes, Palo Alto, Netrounds. Alcatel vRouter (DHCP, NAT), VPN, FW
17. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 17 ADVA 2014.06 2015.10 Openflow Switch VNF Ensemble Network Controller (ENC) Ensemble Service Orchestrator (ESO) Openstack Selfcare Portal SP’s OSS/BSS X.86 Server • Supports both Centralized CPE and Distributed CPE models • Orchestrator and SDN controller: Supplied by ADVA • VNF: CE 2.0 EAD/NID VNF are developed by Overture, but other VNFs are by 3PP • Distributed vCPE platform 1) FSP 150vSE: Server 2) FSP 150 ProVM: NID + Server + Storage 1. Centralized vCPE 2. Distributed vCPE CE Switch FSP 150 vSE FSP 150 ProVM VNF VNF FSP 150 ProVM NFVI as a Service VNF as a Service FSP 150 ProNID PE/ER Backbone PoP Cloud Network Controller Nova Neutron Openflow OVS Netconf, Openflow Carrier Ethernet Underlay Underlay
18. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 18 ADVA deployed at production network, and trials
19. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 19 RAD • Released ETX-2i NID, a server-switch featuring NID and a built-in X.86 module card in March 2015 • Supported 3PP VNFs: vRouter, FW, SBC, WOC, Encryption, IP PBX, IPS/IDS • NFV orchestrators, both by RAD (e.g., RADview D-NVF orchestrator) and by partners (e.g., HPE, Juniper and Ciena), are used ETX-2i NID X.86 Module (NFV)
20. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 20 Enterprise Distributed vCPE – Operators Operator vCPE Service VNF Location: Premise/PoP vCPE Platform (NFVI) NFV MANO VNFs in use Commercial service available in AT&T VPN Network Functions On Demand (uCPE: Universal CPE) Customer Premise Juniper NFX 250 (Server-switch) AT&T in-house: ECOMP vRouter(Juniper, Cisco) vSecurity(Fortinet) vWOC(Riverbed) 2016.07.18 Verizon VPN Virtual Network Service (uCPE) Customer Premise Juniper Cisco Verizon in-house vSecurity (Cisco, Fortinet, Juniper, Palo Alto) vWOC (Riverbed, Cisco) SD-WAN (Viptela, Cisco) 2016.07.21 DartPoints (USA) Customer Premise (located in multi- tenant facilities) ADVA FSP 150vSE (Overture 65vSE) vSwitch: ADVA ensemble connector NFV Orchestrator: ADVA ensemble vRouter vFW Feb. 2016. Began deploying ADVA solutions in its commercial network (world’s first 65vSE+ensembl e). (SMB) CenturyLink (USA) Customer Premise RAD ETX-2i Ciena(Cyan)’s Blue Planet NFV Orchestrator. vEncryption vFW 2015.03.12 (SMB) MASERGY (USA) VPN Virtual f(n)™ Customer Premise ADVA FSP 150vSE (Overture 65vSE) 65vSE: x.86 서버 vCE2.0NID (Overture) vRouter (Brocade) vFW (Fortinet) vSBC (ACME, Adtran) vWOC (Certes Networks) June, 2015. World’s first Pure-Play NFV CPE service (SMB) WOC: WAN Optimization Controller (e.g., WAN Accelerator )
21. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 21 Distributed vCPE: Commercialization case 1 – ADVA 2016.022015.06 Masergy 3rd Party VNFs vRouter (Brocade) vFW (Fortinet) vSBC (ACME, Adtran) vWOC (Certes Networks) 2. Connector ADVA vSwitch FSP 150 vSE SMB LAN Carrier Ethernet Masergy Orchestrator VNFs Orchestration FSP 150 vSE FSP 150 vSE Customer 1 Customer 2 Router Public Internet DartPoints NOC ADVA Ensemble Orchestrator Enterprise LAN Enterprise LAN SDN NFV 1. Masergy (USA-based carrier Ethernet service provider ) 2. DartPoints (USA-based data center operator) Micro Datacenter (OTT model) Public Internet Macro Datacenter (Co-location, Cloud,…) Enterprise LAN Multi-Tenant Building CE2.0 NID VNF (ADVA) 1. FSP 150 vSE = Hardened X.86 Server 3rd Party VNFs VNF service and network service are offered by different service providers 3. CE2.0 NID VNF Customers: SMB (Small and Medium-size Business) Connection speed: 100Mbps Commercialized services: Routing, FW, SBC, WOC What ADVA offers
22. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 22 Distributed vCPE: Commercialization case 2 – AT&T network function on demand (July 18, 2016) 1. Managed Internet Service on Demand Number of AIC (AT&T Integrated Cloud) nodes: 74 as of 2016 VNFs are located at customer premises (e.g. X.86 server in NFX25) or at AICs in AT&T’s network Virtual Router (vRouter) Vendors: Cisco, Juniper, Brocade Features • Static Routing • Routing Policy • RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP Routing Protocols • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Relay • Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) CPUBuilt-in NIC Packet Forwarding Engine 10 x 1GbE copper 2 x 10GbE SFP+ 1 x 1 GbE copper Management / WAN 2 x 1GbE SFP Juniper NFX250 MANO = ECOMP = AT&T in House 2. Network Function on Demand Released on July 18, 2016 To be released in 2017Released in Sep. 2015 vRouter On the Premise NVFs vRouter (Juniper, Cisco) vFW (Fortinet) vWOC (Riverbed) Juniper NFX250 NVFs In the Network VNFs (vRouter) are located at AIC nodes in AT&T’s network ECOMP integrator: Amdocs Openstack: Mirantis Openstack SDN Controller: Juniper Contrail Networking (Overlay, Service- Chain)
23. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 23 Distributed vCPE: Commercialization case 3 Verizon Virtual Network Service Three options: 1. Premises-based universal customer equipment 2. Cloud-based virtual CPE service available later this year 3. Hybrid version that allows for a mix of premises-based and cloud-based deployments. MANO: In-House Openstack: Red Hat’s Openstack Switch Fabric SDN Controller: Big Switch Switch Fabric (Leaf, Spine) White Box Switch: Dell White Box Switch Network OS: Big Switch’s Switch Light OS Distributed vCPE: Juniper, Cisco
24. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 24 3-2: vCPE on Aggregation SW or PE Router Router ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC IPS(Radware) FW(Juniper) Router(Cisco)PNF DPI(Sandvine) WANacc. (Riverbed) L2 CPE Access Network Core NetworkEdge PoPCustomer Premise ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC L2 CPE ❶ X.86 Line Card on Aggre. SW ❷ X.86 Line Card on PE router L2 SW (aggregation) vCPE Physical Network Appliances (PNFs) NFVI on Aggr. Switch or Router W W vCPE • Less unit costs compared to Premise vCPE • Cost performance: Operating an external, standalone X.86 server saves more compared to having a high-priced router connected to all PNFs via line cards • Scalability Problem
25. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 25 vCPE on Aggr. SW or PE – Vendors Vendor PE Router Server CPU Released in NFV MANO Customers Juniper MX 960 x.86 Line Card 2012 In-house: Contrail Service Orchestration (Contrail Systems Acquisition in 2012) COLT Nokia/ALU 7750 SR x.86 Line Card In-house: VSD (Virtual Service Directory) Telco System T-Metro x.86 Line Card In-house: EdgeGenie Orchestrator™ CE 2.0 & SDN/NFV Management System MRV OptiPacket Series x.86 Line Card 2016.05 In-house:Pro-Vision
26. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 26 MRV OS-V20 NFV-Optimized 10GbE CPEs X.86 Module (NFV) Expansion slot can host an x86 HW compute module to allow supporting of virtual applications such as DPI, Firewall, DPI, Security, Load balancing, etc. X.86 Module (VNF) X.86 Line Card (VNF) X.86 Standalone Server(VNF) · Added Intel X.86 module on CPE and Aggregation switch · Operators can implement vE-CPE service right on the Access Network equipment without having to deploy a separate edge PoP NFVI dedicated for the service.
27. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 27 Telco Systems CloudMetro™ 100 10GE Carrier Grade SDN & D-NFV Platform CloudMetro™ 10 1GE Carrier Grade vCPE SDN & Distributed NFV Platform Pre-Integrated VNF: Cisco, Brocade, Juniper, Silver Peak, Riverbed, Fortinet, Check Point, Audio Codes, Palo Alto, Netrounds. VNF 생성/관리 Service Chaining ❸ ❶ ❷ · Added Intel X.86 module on CPE and Aggregation switch · Operators can implement vE-CPE service right on the Access Network equipment without having to deploy a separate data center dedicated for the service. Telco Systems' Open Metro Edge (OME) portfolio = CloudMetro CPE Switch + EdgeGenie Orchestrator + TelcoApps library of pre-configured VNF packages
28. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 28 vCPE on PE Router: Commercialization case COLT: IP access and IP VPN services As of 2015, 60% of enterprises subscribing to Internet Access service are vCPE subscribers. L3 Router L2 NID PE Public Internet Carrier Ethernet Spine: Arista 7150S Leaf: Arista 7050Q IP/MPLS VM vFW OVS VNF VNF vRouter vFW vRouter SDN GW L2 Cyan Cyan Cyan Accedian COLT Node (Edge) COLT Datacenter (Gen4) DC/WAN Network SDN Controller (BluePlanet) Overlay (VXLAN) Underlay (Per-Hop) Openflow 2012.11 2013 2014 Juniper M960 [NFV] · In Nov. 2012, L3 CPE (router) was removed from a customer premise, and vRouter was added as VNF onto X.86 line card at PE router (Juniper M960) · Then later, NFVI was introduced in COLT node, and vRouter and vFW were added onto X.86 server [SDN] · L2 NID – Carrier Ethernet – PE Router: At each hop, SDN controller provisions paths with Openflow · PE – Fabric – vRouter: Overlay Tunnel(VXLAN)s are provisioned by SDN controller with Openflow Cloud Controller (Openstack) VM MPLS L3 VPN IP access and IP VPN services Physical Server VPC 기업전산 자원 PE PE From physical L3 CPE routers to a virtualised IP service (Internet Access & IP/MPLS VPN) Overlay Tunnel(VXLAN) Overlay Tunnel(VXLAN)
29. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 29 3-3: Centralized vCPE Router ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC IPS(Radware) FW(Juniper) Router(Cisco)PNF DPI(Sandvine) WANacc. (Riverbed) L2 CPE Access Network Core NetworkEdge PoPCustomer Premise ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC L2 CPE L2 SW (aggregation) Switch Fabric L2 SW (aggregation) Carrier Ethernet PON Lease Line, etc. NFVI Edge PoP vCPE X.86 server Physical Network Appliances (PNFs) W Datacenter
30. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 30 Centralized vCPE Access Network Core NetworkEdge PoPCustomer Premise Carrier Ethernet, PON Lease Line, L3 Switch, etc. ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC ONT/NID vRouter Switch Fabric LAN Router LAN · CPE at customer premises are virtualized (vCPE) and added onto NFVI at edge PoP · Customer’s LAN is expanded to the operator’s edge PoP NFVI ONT /NID FW vFW Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC CPEs vCPE
31. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 31 3-4: Centralized vCPE – Why SDN? Access Network Core NetworkEdge PoPCustomer Premise Carrier Ethernet, PON Lease Line, L3 Switch, etc. ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC ONT/NID vRouter A Switch Fabric Enterprise A vFW A ONT/NID vRouter B vFW B Enterprise B A secure tunnel is required between a customer (Branch Office) and VNFs at NFVI in edge PoP of the operator to: · Identify and reach the customer’s VNF (vRouter) in the edge PoP · Ensure security as the operator’s access networks, DC GW/ER/PE, Switching Fabric, X.86 servers, etc. are shared by many customers ⇒Network virtualization through SDN (virtual network creation) X.86 server Access Network Branch Office Branch Office
32. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 32 Centralized vCPE - SDN
33. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 33 Centralized vCPE - SDN ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC ONT/NID L2 SW (aggregation) Switch Fabric vRouter vFW Underlay Edge PoP Customer Premise SDN Controller vSwitch VM p1 p2 ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC ONT/NID L2 SW (aggregation) Switch Fabric vRouter vFW Overlay Edge PoP Customer Premise SDN Controller vSwitch VM p1 p2 Per-Hop provisioning (Openflow, Netconf,…) Tunnel provisioning (Openflow, MXPP,…) · SDN controller provisions the packet forwarding table of each node on the route · Can maximize the efficiency of the network usage · SDN controller: Complex · Best for new networks · SDN controller provisions only the two end points on the route · SDN not recognized by sub-network · SDN controller: Simple · Can use existing networks as is VXLAN, GRE or IPsec Tunnel Hop-by-Hop forwarding
34. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 34 Centralized vCPE - SDN DC GW/ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC ONT/NID L2 SW (aggre.) Switch Fabric SDN SDN Network Virtualization with SDN: Access Network ❶ Underlay: Openflow ❷ Overlay: Tunnel vRouter vFW Access Network Core NetworkEdge PoPCustomer Premise Carrier Ethernet, PON Lease Line, L3 Switch, etc. vRouter vFW ONT/NID/L2 CPE Switch Fabric Switch Fabric ER/PEDC GW Underlay (Per-Hop Openflow/Netconf/ Proprietary/Manual) Switch Fabric Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE)Overlay (VXLAN, GRE, IPsec) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Per-Hop Openflow/Netconf/Proprietary/Manual) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE)Overlay (VXLAN, GRE, IPsec) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Openflow) A B X.86 server A B Network Virtualization with SDN: Datacenter (edge PoP) ❶ Underlay: Openflow ❷ Overlay: Tunnel
35. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 35 Enterprise Centralized vCPE – Vendors Vendor Cloud CPE vSwitch DC SDN tunnel Switching Fabric NFVO, SDNC Customers Juniper vCPE VR VXLAN, MPLSoGRE QFX series In-house AT&T Cisco CSR1Kv VTF VXLAN, MPLSoGRE In-house Orange Ericsson vEGW EVS/CSS VXLAN, MPLSoGRE Router 8000 In-house 2015 Trial@Telstra (Australia) Nokia/ALU vCPE VRS VXLAN, MPLSoGRE 7850 In-house
36. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 36 Ericsson: vEGW Solution DC GW/ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC L2 SDN CPE L2 SW (aggre.) Switch Fabric SDN SDN vRouter vFW Access Network Edge PoP Customer Premise Carrier Ethernet, PON Lease Line, L3 Switch, etc. vRouter vFW L2 SDN CPE Switch Fabric Switch Fabric ER/PEDC GW Underlay (Per-Hop Openflow/Netconf/ Proprietary/Manual) Switch Fabric Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE)Overlay (VXLAN, GRE, IPsec) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Per-Hop Openflow/Netconf/Proprietary/Manual) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE)Overlay (VXLAN, GRE, IPsec) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Openflow) A A B ASUS RT-N16 Zyxel NBG 6716 Router 8801 (240Gbps) SSR 8000 VNF vSwitch VM p1 p2 B EVS/CSS Ericsson SDN Controller (Opendaylight) Resource Orchestration (Openstack/ECEE) Service Orchestration (ECM)
37. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 37 Ericsson vEGW Internet L3 VPN Virtual Enterprise GW (vEGW): Ericsson’s vCPE solution for Branch offices and SMBs PoP/Local DatacenterLegacy Access Network (Any) VXLAN Tunnel, GRE HQ BO or SMB vFW OVS vNAT Access GW (vRouter) SDN-CPE (L2) OLT/DSLAM/CMTS/ L2 SW/L3 SW Ericsson SDN Controller (Opendaylight) Resource Orchestration (Openstack/ECEE) Service Orchestration (ECM) Openflow Openflow/OVSDB Nova/Neutron/Glance VXLAN Tunnel VM Instances Portal DC GW ER/PE ... OVS OVS
38. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 38 Ericsson vEGW Internet L3 VPN Virtual Enterprise GW (vEGW): Ericsson’s vCPE solution for Branch offices and SMBs PoP/Local Datacenter Legacy Access Network (Any) VXLAN Tunnel, GRE HQ BO or SMB vFW OVS vNAT Port1 Port2 Port3 Access GW (vRouter) SDN-CPE (L2) OLT/DSLAM/CMTS/ L2 SW/L3 SW Ericsson SDN Controller (Opendaylight) Resource Orchestration (Openstack/ECEE) Service Orchestration (ECM) Openflow Openflow/OVSDB Nova/Neutron/Glance VXLAN Tunnel VM Instances Portal L3 SW ER/PE VXLAN Tunnel ID Server IP:1.1.1.1 => VXLAN Tunnel ID: Port 1
39. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 39 Juniper Centralized vCPE Internet L3 VPN Telco CO/PoP HQ BO or SMB L2 CPE Portal Unified Edge Router Or MX series ... vRouter vSRX QFX switch series ... VXLAN, MPLSoGRE XMPP BGP, NetconfVR VLAN L1 Ipsec, GRE tunnel vSRX FW, IPS, Anti-Virus, ... Underlay/Overlay Overlay 3PP VNF Northstar (SDN controller) VM, VN Virtual Machine Virtual Network Contrail Service Orchestration (NFV Orchestration and VNF Manager) Contrail Cloud Platform: VIM (Openstack + SDN Controller(Contrail Networking)) VNF VNF Manager VM VM
40. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 40 Juniper Centralized vCPE (1) Internet L3 VPN Telco CO/PoP HQ BO or SMB L2 CPE Portal Unified Edge Router Or MX series ... QFX switch series VLAN L1 Ipsec, GRE tunnel Underlay/Overlay Northstar (SDN controller) VM, VN Contrail Service Orchestration (NFV Orchestration and VNF Manager) Contrail Cloud Platform: VIM (Openstack + SDN Controller(Contrail Networking)) VNF Manager
41. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 41 Juniper Centralized vCPE (2) Internet L3 VPN Telco CO/PoP HQ BO or SMB L2 CPE Portal Unified Edge Router Or MX series ... VLAN L1 Ipsec, GRE tunnel Underlay/Overlay Northstar (SDN controller) VM, VN Contrail Service Orchestration (NFV Orchestration and VNF Manager) Contrail Cloud Platform: VIM (Openstack + SDN Controller(Contrail Networking)) E2E VPN creation
42. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 42 Juniper Centralized vCPE (3) Internet L3 VPN Telco CO/PoP HQ BO or SMB L2 CPE Portal Unified Edge Router Or MX series ... VLAN L1 Ipsec, GRE tunnel Underlay/Overlay Northstar (SDN controller) VM, VN Virtual Machine creation Contrail Service Orchestration (NFV Orchestration and VNF Manager) Contrail Cloud Platform: VIM (Openstack + SDN Controller(Contrail Networking)) VM VM VR ge1 ge2 ge1 ge2 ip1 ip2 ip1 ip2
43. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 43 Juniper Centralized vCPE (4) Internet L3 VPN Telco CO/PoP HQ BO or SMB L2 CPE Portal Unified Edge Router Or MX series ... VXLAN, MPLSoGRE BGP, Netconf VR VLAN L1 Ipsec, GRE tunnel Underlay/Overlay Overlay Northstar (SDN controller) VM, VN Contrail Service Orchestration (NFV Orchestration and VNF Manager) Contrail Cloud Platform: VIM (Openstack + SDN Controller(Contrail Networking)) VM VM XMPP Virtual Network creation ge1 ge2 ge1 ge2
44. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 44 Juniper Centralized vCPE (5) Internet L3 VPN Telco CO/PoP HQ BO or SMB L2 CPE Portal Unified Edge Router Or MX series ... vRouter vSRX VXLAN, MPLSoGRE VR VLAN L1 Ipsec, GRE tunnel Underlay/Overlay Overlay Northstar (SDN controller) VM, VN Contrail Service Orchestration (NFV Orchestration and VNF Manager) Contrail Cloud Platform: VIM (Openstack + SDN Controller(Contrail Networking)) VNF Instance creation VNF Manager VM VM ge1 ge2 ge1 ge2
45. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 45 Enterprise Centralized vCPE – Operators Operator vCPE Service VNF Location: Premise/PoP Premise CPE – Cloud CPE Connectivity NFV MANO VNFs introduced (or to be introduced) Commercial service launched or to be launched AT&T Network Functions On Demand AT&T Node (AIC) AT&T ECOMP vRouter(Juniper, Cisco) vSecurity(Fortinet) vWOC(Riverbed) Planned in 2017 Verizon VPN Virtual Network Service Cloud CPE Hybrid Maybe In-House vSecurity (Cisco, Fortinet, Juniper, Palo Alto) vWOC (Riverbed, Cisco) 2016.Q3 Orange Easy Go Orange PoP NFV Orchestrator: Ciena BluePlanet vSRX (Juniper) (Versa) DT (T-Com) Cisco Turn-Key DT PoP/Datacenter Overlay (IPsec) vRouter (Cisco, CSR1Kv) vFW (Cisco, ) V (Cisco, ) Croatia, Hungary, and Slovakia in March 2015. German in March 2016 COLT (Europe) Internet MPLS VPN IP access and IP VPN services COLT Node (PoP) Initially X.86 card on Juniper Universal Edge Router, and then later on X.86 server and SF Underlay SDN (Openflow) SDNC: BluePlane vRouter, vFW 2012.11 – 2013 - 2014 Singtel Singtel NFV service* Singtel Cloud vRouter, vFW In May 2016 KT Maybe In-House 2017 or 2018 *Offered for free to enterprise customers subscribing to Singtel’s enterprise Internet service
46. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 46 Centralized vCPE: Commercialization case 1 – COLT COLT: IP access and IP VPN services DC GW/ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC ONT/NID L2 SW (aggre.) Switch FabricSDN SDN vRouter vFW Access Network Core NetworkEdge PoPCustomer Premise Carrier Ethernet vRouter vFW ONT/NID/L2 CPE Switch Fabric Switch Fabric ER/PEDC GW Underlay (Per-Hop Openflow/Netconf/ Proprietary/Manual) Switch Fabric Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE)Overlay (VXLAN, GRE, IPsec) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Per-Hop Openflow/Netconf/Proprietary/Manual) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE) Overlay (VXLAN, MPLSoGRE)Overlay (VXLAN, GRE, IPsec) Underlay (Openflow) Underlay (Openflow) A X.86 server A B
47. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 47 COLT: IP access and IP VPN services As of 2015, 60% of enterprises subscribing to Internet Access service are vCPE subscribers. L3 Router L2 NID PE Public Internet Carrier Ethernet Spine: Arista 7150S Leaf: Arista 7050Q IP/MPLS VM vFW OVS VNF VNF vRouter vFW vRouter SDN GW L2 Cyan Cyan Cyan Accedian COLT Node (Edge) COLT Datacenter (Gen4) DC/WAN Network SDN Controller (BluePlanet) Overlay (VXLAN) Underlay (Per-Hop) Openflow 2012.11 2013 2014 Juniper M960 [NFV] · In Nov. 2012, L3 CPE (router) was removed from a customer premise, and vRouter was added as VNF onto X.86 line card at PE router (Juniper M960) · Then later, NFVI was introduced in COLT node, and vRouter and vFW were added onto X.86 server [SDN] · L2 NID – Carrier Ethernet – PE Router: At each hop, SDN controller provisions paths with Openflow · PE – Fabric – vRouter: Overlay Tunnel(VXLAN)s are provisioned by SDN controller with Openflow Cloud Controller (Openstack) VM MPLS L3 VPN IP access and IP VPN services Physical Server VPC 기업전산 자원 PE PE From physical L3 CPE routers to a virtualised IP service (Internet Access & IP/MPLS VPN) Overlay Tunnel(VXLAN) Overlay Tunnel(VXLAN)
48. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 48 COLT: IP access L3 Router L2 NID PE/ER Public Internet Carrier Ethernet Spine: Arista 7150S Leaf: Arista 7050Q IP/MPLS VM vFW OVS VNF VNF vRouter vFW SDN GW L2 Cyan Cyan Cyan Accedian COLT Node (Edge) COLT Datacenter (Gen4) DC/WAN Network SDN Controller (BluePlanet) Overlay (VXLAN) Underlay (Per-Hop) Openflow 2013년 2014년 Juniper M960 Cloud Controller (Openstack) VM Physical Server VPC 기업전산 자원 PE/ER PE/ER
49. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 49 COLT: IP VPN (MPLS L3 VPN) services L3 Router L2 NID PE Public Internet Carrier Ethernet Spine: Arista 7150S Leaf: Arista 7050Q IP/MPLS VM vFW OVS VNF VNF SDN GW L2 Cyan Cyan Cyan Accedian COLT Node (Edge) COLT Datacenter (Gen4) DC/WAN Network SDN Controller (BluePlanet) 2014년 Juniper M960 Cloud Controller (Openstack) VM MPLS L3 VPN Physical Server VPC 기업전산 자원 PE PE vRouter vRouterCustomer Site Customer Site
50. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 50 Centralized vCPE: Commercialization case 2 – AT&T network function on demand (July 18, 2016) 1. Managed Internet Service on Demand Number of AIC (AT&T Integrated Cloud) nodes: 74 as of 2016 VNFs are located at customer premises (e.g. X.86 server in NFX25) or at AICs in AT&T’s network Virtual Router (vRouter) Vendors: Cisco, Juniper, Brocade Features • Static Routing • Routing Policy • RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP Routing Protocols • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Relay • Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) CPUBuilt-in NIC Packet Forwarding Engine 10 x 1GbE copper 2 x 10GbE SFP+ 1 x 1 GbE copper Management / WAN 2 x 1GbE SFP Juniper NFX250 MANO = ECOMP = AT&T in House 2. Network Function on Demand Released on July 18, 2016 To be released in 2017Released in Sep. 2015 vRouter On the Premise NVFs vRouter (Juniper, Cisco) vFW (Fortinet) vWOC (Riverbed) Juniper NFX250 NVFs In the Network VNFs (vRouter) are located at AIC nodes in AT&T’s network ECOMP integrator: Amdocs Openstack: Mirantis Openstack SDN Controller: Juniper Contrail Networking (Overlay, Service- Chain)
51. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 51 Centralized vCPE: Commercialization case 3 Verizon Virtual Network Service Three options: 1. Premises-based universal customer equipment 2. Cloud-based virtual CPE service available later this year 3. Hybrid version that allows for a mix of premises-based and cloud-based deployments. MANO: In-House Openstack: Red Hat’s Openstack Switch Fabric SDN Controller: Big Switch Switch Fabric (Leaf, Spine) White Box Switch: Dell White Box Switch Network OS: Big Switch’s Switch Light OS Distributed vCPE: Juniper, Cisco
52. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 52 3-5: Distributed vCPE vs Centralized vCPE BackboneAccess Enterprise Edge PoP Core DatacenterTelco Network Function (PNF) VPC Tenant A Tenant B .. . SDNC NFV-O Current IPS (Radware) FW (Juniper) Router (Cisco)PNF DPI (Sandvine) WAN acc. (Riverbed) Install, configure, update, maintain BackboneAccess L2 NID ... 2. VNF at CO/PoP (Centralized vCPE) Edge PoP BackboneAccess Server-Switch 1. VNF at Premise (Distributed vCPE) many single-purpose, hardware-based devices subscription can be available in days or weeks Too high CAPEX/OPEX vRouter vFW vWOCVNF vRouter vFW VNF L2 NID vRouter vFW vWOC vRouter vFW vWOC vWOC VNF VNF Self-Service Portal SDNCNFV-O Self-Service Portal SDNCNFV-O Edge PoP
53. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 53 Comparison 1. First Costs Centralized vCPE (VNF at CO/PoP/DC)Distributed vCPE (VNF at Premise) BackboneAccess VNF BackboneAccess AccessAccess Access SDNCNFV-O Access · Full-scale datacenter deployment or network re-design is not necessary · No change in network architecture · Works required only within customer premises as usual · Fast time-to-market SDNCNFV-O · High costs in building a new data center at edge PoP and deploying full NFVI (switch fabric, server and storage) SDN SDN SDN
54. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 54 Comparison 2. NFVI Costs (Per-unit costs and scalability) Centralized vCPE (VNF at CO/PoP/DC)Distributed vCPE (VNF at Premise) BackboneAccess BackboneAccess SDNCNFV-OSDNCNFV-O VNF 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 1 2 21 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 54 5 Resources (servers and storage) can efficiently be shared among customers as needed High scalability fixed compute power · Computing capacity of the distributed vCPE at each customer cannot be shared with other customers · Computing nodes with sufficient capacity margins must be provided as customers can request for more services (i.e. adding VNFs) later · vCPE HW must be replaced when the customer adds services more than specified · Plentiful resources of many servers at edge PoP can be efficiently shared among customers · Low per-unit costs (costs per customer), the greatest benefit · More servers and storage can be easily added at edge PoP as the number of customers and their subscription grow 1 2 21 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 54 5 1 2 21 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 54 5 1 2 21 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 54 5
55. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 55 Cost Centralized vCPE (VNF at CO/PoP/DC)Distributed vCPE (VNF at Premise) No. of Customers Costs No. of Customers CostsAlmost-linear growth High first costs, but moderate increase over subscription growth
56. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 56 Comparison 3. Application Performance: WAN accelerator Centralized vCPE (VNF at CO/PoP/DC)Distributed vCPE (VNF at Premise) Metro/ Backbone Access Access Metro/ Backbone Access Access Multiple TCP sessions between BO and HQ = Fast E2E data transmission Single TCP session between HQ and PoP, and PoP and BO = less efficient WAN accelerator VNF: WAN Accelerator VNF: WAN Accelerator · WAN accelerator function works between two points (e.g. between HQ and BO, or between BO and BO), thereby giving excellent speed enhancement · Acceleration effect is caused only between the operator’s edge PoPs, and so less E2E efficiency · Effective only when edge PoPs and customer are located close by Edge PoP Edge PoP BO HQ BO HQ TCP session throughputs in inverse proportion to RTT A few usec 0~00 msec Download Download TCP Sessions Fast Slow VNF: WAN Accelerator VNF: WAN Accelerator
57. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 57 Comparison 4. Application Performance: Data De-duplication Centralized vCPE (VNF at CO/PoP/DC)Distributed vCPE (VNF at Premise) VNF: WAN Data De-duplication 431 2 431 2 변경부분 431 2 431 2 3 431 2 431 2 431 2 431 2 431 2 3 431 2 Access · Lower cost of WAN cabling · (ex, 50Mbps instead of 100Mbps will be sufficient) · No saving costs of WAN cabling 100Mbps 변경부분 431 2 4 431 2 10Mbps 10Mbps 431 2 4 431 2 Backbone Access Access Backbone Access 100Mbps 100Mbps 100Mbps Edge PoP Edge PoPBO HQ 100MB 1MB 1MB 100MB 100MB 100MB
58. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 58 Comparison 5. Others • IP PBX, Router: With distributed vCPE, no communication at a customer premise is available when access links fail or are blocked • Security • Reliability
59. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 59 3-6: Hybrid = Best VNFs are located at distributed locations in both a customer premise and the edge PoP (multi-site service chain) Access Network Core NetworkEdge PoPCustomer Premise Carrier Ethernet PON, DSL Lease Line, etc. ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC L2 CPE L2 SW (aggregation) Switch Fabric ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone L3 VPN DC L2 CPE L2 SW (aggregation) Switch Fabric L2 Circuit (VLAN) SDN SDN NFVI VNF VNF SDN W W VNF VNF VNF VNF
60. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 60 ex) AT&T Network Function On Demand
61. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 61 Netmanias’ Ideal Scenario: First D-vCPE, and then C-vCPE, but ultimately Hybrid (when specific circumstances of each operator are not considered) FW (Juniper)Router (Cisco) WAN acc. (Riverbed) Customer Premise ONT/NID vSwitch X.86 server Physical Network Appliances: Multiple pieces of equipment serving a single purpose Virtual CPE: Multiple appliances virtualized on X.86 server W ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone MPLS L3 VPN DC Access ER/PE ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC IP Backbone MPLS L3 VPN DC Access Branch Office/SMB Customer Premise Edge PoP aggregation W vRouter vWOC vFW vSwitch X.86 server W vSwitch X.86 server W vSwitch X.86 server W ER/PE vSwitch X.86 server W vSwitch X.86 server W vSwitch X.86 server W Edge PoP Customer Premise First, Distributed vCPE! And then, Centralized vCPE! Ultimately Hybrid (VNFs are distributed onto either D-vCPE or c-vCPE depending on services)
62. SDN/NFV: Strategies and Progresses in Network Operators 62 3-7: Discussion ER/PE Public Internet HQ/DC DC Access Edge PoP aggregation vSwitch X.86 server W vSwitch X.86 server W ER/PE Edge PoP vSwitch X.86 server vBNG DHCP Pare. Residential Enterprise Mobile vSwitch X.86 server vBBU vEPC MEC vSwitch X.86 server W vSwitch X.86 server vBNG DHCP Pare. vSwitch X.86 server vBBU vEPC MEC aggregation Access MPLS L3 VPN IP Backbone Discussion
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SK Telecom's Massive IoT Deployment through LoRa for Small Things

 

 

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