| 리포트 | 기술문서 | 테크-블로그 | 원샷 갤러리 | 스폰서 컨텐츠 | 네트워크/통신 뉴스 | 인터넷자료실 | 자유게시판      한국 ICT 기업 총람 |

제품 검색

|

통신 방송 통계

 
 
 
섹션 5G 4G LTE C-RAN/Fronthaul Gigabit Internet IPTV/UHD IoT SDN/NFV Wi-Fi Video Streaming KT SK Telecom LG U+ OTT Network Protocol CDN YouTube Data Center
 

5G 특화망

(Private 5G) 

포탈 홈 넷매니아즈 Private 5G 분석글 5G 특화망 뉴스  5G 특화망 정책 일본의 Local 5G 전개현황 KT SK Telecom Verizon AT&T Vodafone DT  Telefonica
China Mobile Optage NEC Fujitsu Microsoft AWS HFR Ericsson Nokia Huawei Samsung Mavenir Affirmed Metaswitch Athonet Altiostar Airspan Kyocera Apresia
 
스폰서채널 |

 HFR의 5G 특화망 솔루션 (my5G |  

  스폰서채널 서비스란?
banner
banner
Metro Optical Ethernet: MPLS-based Transparent Service
Metro Optical Ethernet: MPLS-based Transparent Service
May 30, 2001 | By Netmanias (tech@netmanias.com)
banner
코멘트 (0)
6

손장우 @ Netmanias (tech@netmanias.com)

Thank you for visiting Netmanias! Please leave your comment if you have a question or suggestion.
Transcript
Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Analyze Trends, Technologies and Market
NETMANIAS WHITE PAPER
by
05/30/2001
손장우
son@netmanias.com
www.netmanias.com
016-460-5747
NETMANIAS-SON-35Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
MTU
VLAN
802.1q
MTU
VLAN
802.1q
MPLS Network
MTU
VLAN
802.1q
MTU
VLAN
802.1q
MPLS Network
Presentation at
- on the Net NetFocus 2001, Kosmo Tower, Seoul (05/29/2001)
- 10Gigabit Ethernet Forum workshop,  (05/24/2001) Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Content
Internet Big Picture and Metro
Metro Optical Ethernet Evolution
The 1
st
Generation Metro Optical Ethernet
The 2
nd
Generation Metro Optical Ethernet
Transparent LAN service
VLAN-based
MPLS-based
ConclusionNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Internet Big Picture
CO Metro POP
Metro Core
(Interoffice)
Access
(“last mile”)
Backbone
(Long-haul)
전화선, HFC, FTTX
TDM(copper, T1/T3)
SONET
CWDM/DWDM
Wireless
Free space optic
Single-E
User Contents
Customer
Premise
분산화
MDU(Apart)
MDU:
T1/T3, GE, POS, ATM
PPP,FR/HDLC(T1/T3)
xDSL
POS(S)
ATM(T/S)
MPLS
GE/10GE(T/S)
RPR(S)
Multiservice SONET
POS
ATM
MPLS
GE/10GE
RPR
Multiservice SONET
POS
ATM
MPLS
10GBE
MPλS
Area
Transport
Network
Data
Network
Enterprise
Home
MTU
Residential xDSL
CM
Ether.
T1/E1
xDSL
Ether.
Ether.
Res.: Dialup, xDSL  
CM, GE, xPON
Ether.
xDSL
Ether.
SONET
CWDM
Metro DWDM
SONET
Long-haul DWDM
LAN
MTU 구내배선:
Copper
UTP(10%)
Fiber(5%)
Edge
Backbone
(InterCity)
Metro Core
(interoffice)
Metro  POP
CO CO
Business
Residential
IP access IP aggregation IP Core IP aggregation IP access
Residential
Global Internet
or Other ISP
Business
Metro  POP
SDU
Gear:
Edge Router
ATM Switch
MPLS Router
10GBE Switch
RPR node
MSPP node
Gear:
Core Router
ATM Switch
MPLS Router
10GBE Switch
MPλS node
FLC
DSLAM
L2/3.
DSLAM
L2/3.
(FLC)
Copper/fiber(10%, MTU) fiber fiber
Metro Core
(interoffice)
In-building
In-building
Function
DSLAMNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Internet Performance
?
Backbone Metro
CO CO
LAN
Residentia
l
Metro
- nDS0, T1, T3 Leased line
(64K, 256K, 516K, 1.544M,
2.048M, 45M)
- TDM-based  SONET
Enterprise
GE  Fast (Gigabit)
backbone
IP/DWDM, TSR
OADM, OXC, OPS
Residential  Fast (Gigabit/Terabit)
Cable, xDSL, and
Broadband Wireless
Fast (Mbps/user)
Contents
User User
Global Internet
or Other ISP
Metro  
POP
Metro  
POPNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
,  MAN
왜 모양인가?
현재, Business Internet access, private line은 SONET/SDH 기반 전송망을
이용하는 데, 이 SONET/SDH망의 문제는
Circuit switching/TDM, BW allocation flexibility, Expensive
Upgrade ?, Long lead time
OC3/12
access
ring
OC3/12
access
ring
OC12/48
Metro Core Ring
OC3/12
access
ring OC12/48
Metro Core Ring
OC3/12
access
ring OC3/12
access
ring
OC12/48
Metro Core Ring
OC3/12
access
ring
OC3/12
access
ring
Long-haul DWDM backbone
(OC48/192)
T1
T3
ISP
POP
Co-location
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO CO
POP
POP
Internet
B-to-B
512K
OC3/12
access
ring
OC3/12
access
ring
OC12/48
Metro Core Ring
OC3/12
access
ring OC12/48
Metro Core Ring
OC3/12
access
ring OC3/12
access
ring
OC12/48
Metro Core Ring
OC3/12
access
ring
OC3/12
access
ring
Long-haul DWDM backbone
(OC48/192)
T1
T3
ISP
POP
Co-location
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO CO
POP
POP
Internet
B-to-B
512KNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Emerging
Technologies
IP IP
Backbone Metro
CO CO
Contents User
Business
Residential
LAN
User
Residential
Metro
Metro  
POP
Metro  
POP
MSPP
Metro DWDMNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro Optical
Ethernet
Metro Optical Ethernet
No ATM and/or SONET gear required !
Optical IP/Ethernet-based network (Fiber to the MTU/Customer)
Ethernet packet-switching Network (L2/L3)
Rate-limiting/guaranteeing service: 1M,2M,…,100M,110,…1000Mbps
Dynamic, Real-time, web-based and self-BW provisioning
Cost-effective (망구축 및 운영 비용)
Low service charge: $1000/100Mbps/Month (Cogent)
Target service: LAN-interconnection, Internet access, xSP access
Advantages
Cheap
Easy to maintain and operate
Statistical multiplexing (cf. SONET)
Seamless Internetworking (No protocol conversion)
Scalability (10GbE)
Fast/Dynamic Provisioning
BW Granularity(++1M)Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
MAN Function
Backbone Metro
CO CO
LAN
Residential
Metro
Contents
(localization)
Web server, Co-location,
ASP, CSP, DBSP
Global Internet
or Other ISP
Metro  
POP
Metro  
POP
- nDS0, T1, T3 Leased line
(64K, 256K, 516K, 1.544M,
2.048M, 45M)
- TDM-based  SONET
LAN-to-LAN
interconnection
Internet Access
xSP AccessNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro Optical
Ethernet Service
Metro Core
Network
Metro Access
Network
MTU
Internet
MTU
(KTB )
MTU
( )
Dark Fiber
(Ring or Star)
Ethernet
Switch (L2/L3)
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star or Mesh)
ASP/CSP/DBSP/Co-location/IDC
Customer
MTU
MTU
MTU
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star)
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Metro POP
( )
ASP/CSP/DBSP/
Co-location/IDC
Customer
AccessNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
ESP/MTU-SP/FLEC/EtherLEC/ELEC
Ethernet Service
Providers
Telseon (www.telseon.com)
Yipes (www.yipes.com)
Cogent (www.cogentco.com)
Vitts
Intellispace (www.intellispace.com)
Sigma networks (www.sigmanetworks.com)
UrbanMedia (www.urbanmedia.com)
FiberCity (www.fibercitynetworks.com):
Everest BB (www.everestbroadband.com)
FiberNet (www.fiber.net)
Bell Nexxia of Bell Canada
CompleTel Europe
Stream Intelligent Networks (Canada)
XO communication
France Telecom
NTT, IPR, U’s communication
국내: Dreamline, GNG Networks, Thrunet, …
ILEC/CLEC: SBC, …Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
미국에서 기존 ILEC이나 CLEC이 제공하는 메트로 구간내의 사설망 전용회선 (LAN-to-LAN
interconnect)의 경우, 즉 장거리 연결 요금과 인터넷 액세스 요금이 포함되지 않은 경우에
T1(1.544Mbps) 전용선의 월 사용요금이 약 $1,500선이고 T3(45Mbps)가 $5,000~6,000선이
다. 또한 T3 인터넷 전용회선 사용요금이 $18,000~35,000선에 이른다. 국내의 경우 T1 인터
넷 전용회선은 월 2백만원대이고 메트로 구간에서 사설망 전용회선 요금은 T1이 월 40만원
대이며 T3는 월 5백만원대이다.
이에 반해, 메트로 이더넷 서비스 사업자는 메트로 구간내 이더넷 사설망 전용회선의 사용료
가 100Mbps의 경우 텔세온은 월 $2,500이고 야입스는 월 $3,000이다. 또한 XO
communications는 100Mbps는 월 $2,000~$3,000이고 1 기가비트 이더넷은 월
$12,000~$15,000로 서비스하고 있다. 이더넷 인터넷 전용회선의 경우 코전트는 100Mbps가
월 $1,000이며 1 기가비트 이더넷은 월 $10,000로 서비스하고 있다.
즉, 기존의 ILEC이나 CLEC이 제공하던 전용회선 요금과 비교하면 사설망 전용회선은
1Mbps당 최소 3.7배(T3:$5,000, 100Mbps: 3,000)에서 97배(T1:$1,500, 1Gbps: $10,000)정
도 저렴하며 인터넷 전용회선은 40배(T3:$18,000, 100Mbps: $1,000)에서 77배(T3:35,000,
100Mbps: $1,000) 정도 저렴하다. 이는 기존에 사용하던 전용회선과 비교하여 최소한 두 배
의 대역폭을 절반의 요금으로 사용하는 것이 보장된다는 것을 의미하며 이는 기존 통신 시장
의 질서를 파괴할 만큼의 큰 영향을 끼치기에 충분하다.
이와 같이 메트로 이더넷 네트워크는 기존의 SONET망과 ATM망과 비교해 서비스 사업자입
장에서는 망구축 비용이 절감되고 운영이 용이하며 사용자 측면에서는 높은 대역폭을 파격적
인 요금으로 이용할 수 있다는 매력적인 장점을 가지고 있다.
Service PriceNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro Optical Ethernet
Network
Metro Core
Network
Metro Access
Network
MTU
Internet
MTU
(KTB )
MTU
( )
Dark Fiber
(Ring or Star)
Ethernet
Switch (L2/L3)
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star or Mesh)
ASP/CSP/DBSP/Co-location/IDC
Customer
MTU
MTU
MTU
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star)
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Metro POP
( )
ASP/CSP/DBSP/
Co-location/IDC
Customer
서울시Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro Optical Ethernet
Network Deployment
Metro Core
Network
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Metro POP
( )
선정Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro Optical Ethernet
Network Deployment
Metro Core
Network
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Metro POP
( )
Metro Core Network
Ave. 40Km
Star
Ring
Mesh
GbE
GbE
GbE
GbE
GbE
GbE
GbE
GbE
GbENetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro Optical Ethernet
Network Deployment
Metro Core
Network
Metro Access
Network
MTU
MTU
(KTB )
MTU
( )
Ethernet
Customer
Switch (L2/L3)
MTU
MTU
MTU
Node
( )
Node
( )
Customer
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star or Mesh)
Node
( )
Node
( )
Metro POP
( )Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro Optical Ethernet
Network Deployment
Metro Core
Network
Metro Access
Network
MTU
MTU
(KTB )
MTU
( )
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star, Mesh)
Customer
MTU
MTU
MTU
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star)
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Metro POP
( )
Customer
Metro Access Network
MTU
MTU
MTU
< 3~5Km
MTU
MTU
MTU
Star
Ring
GbE
GbE
GbE
GbENetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro Optical Ethernet
Network Deployment
Metro Core
Network
Metro Access
Network
MTU
(6) Internet
MTU
(KTB )
MTU
( )
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star)
Ethernet
Switch (L2/L3)
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star, Mesh)
(7) ASP/CSP/DBSP/Co-location/IDC
Customer
MTU
MTU
MTU
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star)
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Metro POP
( )
(7) ASP/CSP/DBSP/
Co-location/IDC
Customer
service !!!Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro Optical
Ethernet Services
Metro Core
Network
Metro Access
Network
MTU
Internet
MTU
(KTB )
MTU
( )
Dark Fiber
(Ring or Star)
Ethernet
Switch (L2/L3)
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star or Mesh)
ASP/CSP/DBSP/Co-location/IDC
Customer
MTU
MTU
MTU
Dark Fiber
(Ring, Star)
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Node
( )
Metro POP
( )
ASP/CSP/DBSP/
Co-location/IDC
Customer
AccessNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
MTU
MTU
Sample Network
Metro Core
Network
Metro Access
Network
Internet
MTU
10 customer/MTU
50 MTU/access network
5 Node/Core Ring
Total
250 MTUs
2,500 customers
200Mbps/MTU guarantee (access rate)
20 Mbps/customer guarantee (access rate)
Node
Node
Node
Node
Metro POP
MTU
MTU
MTUNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Sample Network
MTU
Internet
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
Access Ring #1
Access Ring #10

10 customer/MTU
5 MTU/access Ring
10 access Ring/NODE
5 NODE/Core Ring
CustomerNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Metro optical Ethernet:
Evolution
Native Ethernet
(LAN)
• No BW guarantee(CL)
The 1
st
Generation
Metro Optical Ethernet
The 2nd
Generation
Metro Optical Ethernet
• No CoS/QoS
• Resiliency
STP (30sec)
• P-to-P, Mesh topologies
• Short range Optics
1000BaseLX (5Km)
• Geographic limitation
Ethernet LAN
• BW guarantee(CO)
= Ingress rate-limiting (UPC)
+ 802.1q VLAN (Connection)
+ 802.1p priority queueing
• Switch architecture
H/W-based wire-speed L2/L3
forwarding, queueing and scheduling
• CoS/QoS
Diff-serv to 802.1p mapping
• Resiliency/Restoration
RSTP/EAPS (1sec)
• Ring topology
• Long range optics (70~150Km)
BGIC/CWDM
• Geographic limitation
Ethernet MAN
• 1 Gigabit Ethernet/4GbE
• Real-time provisioning
• Usage-based billing
• End-to-end BW guarantee(CO)
= Ingress rate-limiting (UPC)
+ MPLS LSP
(Per-LSP BW reservation)
• Switch architecture
H/W-based wire-speed MPLS
forwarding, queueing and scheduling
• MPLS CoS/QoS
802.1p/TOS/Diff-serv/port #
to Exp/CoS or LSP
• Resiliency/Restoration
MPLS fast reroute (100msec)
• Ring: RPR (802.17)
- SRP
- Restoration (<50msec)
- Fair ring-access
- Statistical BW sharing
• Long range optics
BGIC/CWDM/DWDM
• Geographic limitation
Ethernet WAN
• 10 Gigabit Ethernet/40GbE
• Real-time/Web-based/
Self-provisioning
• VoIP
• Usage-based billing
2000
2001-Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
End-to-end BW
guarantee
Transparent LAN service
VLAN-based TLS service
MPLS-based TLS service
Vendors (Ethernet over MPLS-based TLS service)
Riverstone
Extreme
Foundry
Cisco
Nortel
JuniperNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Concept of BW guarantee
of VLAN-based Ethernet VPN
(TLS)
1 7 A B
A B
A B
802.1p/q
End-to-end connection: 802.1q VLAN
Priority queueing: 802.1p
Multi-Field Packet Classification
(L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒Ingress rate limiting/guaranteeing
(ex. 20Mbps ingress rate)
MFPC (L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒802.1p mapping
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
802.1
p/q tag
2B
Type
0x8100
2BNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
End-to-end Connection:
802.1q
MTU
VLAN ID 7
VLAN ID 5
7 A B
A B
C D
5 C D
802.1q tag (VLAN ID)
7 A B
A B
C D
Forwarding based-on {dst MAC addr. + VLAN ID}
5 C D
•One VLAN per customer
•VLAN across MAN
- Statically pre-configured, or
- Automatically provisioned
using GARP/GVRP
MAC   VLAN ID  port
B          7             x
D          5             y
7 A B
5 C D
MTU
MTU
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
MAC   VLAN ID  port
B          7             a
D          5             a
MAC   VLAN ID  port
B          7             c
D          5             c
MAC   VLAN ID  port
B          7            z
MAC   VLAN ID  port
B          7            2
2
c
MAC   VLAN ID  port
D          5             k
a
x
kNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Concept of BW guarantee
of VLAN-based Ethernet VPN
(TLS)
1 7 A B
A B
A B
802.1p/q
End-to-end connection: 802.1q VLAN
Priority queueing: 802.1p
Multi-Field Packet Classification
(L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒Ingress rate limiting/guaranteeing
(ex. 20Mbps ingress rate)
MFPC (L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒802.1p mapping
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
802.1
p/q tag
2B
Type
0x8100
2BNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Flow Classification
Control packets
Voice flows
FTP flows
HTTP flows
Classification
(classify flows)
Rate Limiting
(Per-flow RL)
4 priority
queues
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
Packet FilterNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Multi-Field Flow
Classification
MAC
IP
0800
IPX
8138
RARP
8035
ARP
0806
VLAN Tag
8100
UDP
17
TCP
06
RSVP
46
IGMP
02
ICMP
01
Telnet
23
HTTP
80
FTP
20
SMTP
25
DNS
53
RTP
5004
\" $
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
$Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Ingress Rate
Limiting
MTU
MTU
MTU
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
After Multi-Field Packet Classification
(L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒ Rate limiting/guaranteeing at Ingress point,
per-customer and/or per-application
(ex. 20Mbps ingress rate)
MSP networkNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Ingress Rate
Limiting
Physical port speed 100Mbps
Up
5 Mbps
5 Mbps
Down
Customer
A
5 Mbps
15 Mbps
Customer
B
15 Mbps
15 Mbps
Customer
C
MAN port
GbE
PRL (Port Rate Limiting)
Customer에게 물리적인 port FE GE port를 주고 customer가 사
BW를 임의로 임의로 조절해줄 조절해줄 수수 있는있는 기능 (H/W: rate limiting
H/W로 구현함으로써 performance degradation이 없음을 없음을 강조)Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Ingress Rate
Limiting
ARL (Aggregate Rate Limiting)
customer로부터 온( customer로 갈) aggregate traffic rate을 제
( )
customer의 트래픽 트래픽 중중 특정특정 응용의 aggregate traffic rate을 제한(
) ( ,  A로부터 유입되는 VoIP aggregate traffic= 1Mbps로 제한/
)
Packet Filter
10
Mbps
1Mbps
( )
Traffics from
Customer A
( 15Mbps) Voice aggregate traffic
Shaped Traffics from
Medialincs
(Total: 10Mbps
VoIP: 1Mbps)
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
numberNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Ingress Rate
Limiting
얻을 수 있는 효과
Customer별/application별/flow별로 BW 할당
및 보장과 Billing이 가능
Asymmetric allocation: Internet access의 특성
을 반영 (Up: 1Mbps, Down: 10Mbps) Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Ingress Rate
Limiting
어떻게 구현구현 하나?
⇒Hardware Credit Bucket Scheme
Credit count: 현재 credit의 수
Replenish rate (ρ): credit을 refill하는 rate
Packet 도착 Credit이 있으면: Packet pass
Decrease credit count (-1)
없으면: Drop, Reprioritizing (rewrite TOS)
σ
ρ
σ
ρ
Up
Down
Line Card
Key parameters
ρ: Replenish rate
σ: credit pool size
Ex) Riverstone
proprietary algorithm
(not announced)
ATM의
UPC개념 도입Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Concept of BW guarantee
of VLAN-based Ethernet VPN
(TLS)
1 7 A B
A B
A B
802.1p/q
End-to-end connection: 802.1q VLAN
Priority queueing: 802.1p
Multi-Field Packet Classification
(L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒Ingress rate limiting/guaranteeing
(ex. 20Mbps ingress rate)
MFPC (L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒802.1p mapping
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
802.1
p/q tag
2B
Type
0x8100
2BNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Mapping to 802.1p
MTU
VLAN ID 7
VLAN ID 5
A B
CD
802.1q tag (VLAN ID)
MTU
MTU
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
1 7 A B
802.1p tag (priority)
3 5 CD
Marking 802.1p tagNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Mapping to 802.1p
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
802.1
p/q tag
2B
Type
0x8100
2B
Policy
TPI
0x8100
Priority CFI VLAN ID
16 b 3 b 1 b 12 b
Port srcMAC dstMAC TOS srcIP dstIP srcPort# dstPort# VLAN ID priority
#1 mac_a mac_b 7 165.132/16 165.154/16 x y 7 1
802.1p/q header
Classification
At Ingress Point,Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Concept of BW guarantee
of VLAN-based Ethernet VPN
(TLS)
1 7 A B
A B
A B
802.1p/q
End-to-end connection: 802.1q VLAN
Priority queueing: 802.1p
Multi-Field Packet Classification
(L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒Ingress rate limiting/guaranteeing
(ex. 20Mbps ingress rate)
MFPC (L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒802.1p mapping
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
802.1
p/q tag
2B
Type
0x8100
2BNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Priority queueing and
scheduling
MTU
VLAN ID 7
VLAN ID 5
A B
CD
802.1q tag (VLAN ID)
A B
CD
MTU
MTU
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
CPE
1 7 A B
802.1p tag (priority)
3 5 CD
1 7 A B
1 7 A B
3 5 CD
3 5 CD
Priority
Field
체크
Highest Priority
Lowest Priority
Priority Field(802.p bits)
1 7 A B
3 5 CD
1 7 A B
3 5 CD 3 5 CD
1 7 A BNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Concept of BW guarantee
of VLAN-based Ethernet VPN
(TLS)
1 7 A B
A B
A B
802.1p/q
End-to-end connection: 802.1q VLAN
Priority queueing: 802.1p
Multi-Field Packet Classification
(L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒Ingress rate limiting/guaranteeing
(ex. 20Mbps ingress rate)
MFPC (L2/L3/L4 header)
⇒802.1p mapping
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
802.1
p/q tag
2B
Type
0x8100
2BNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Case 1) Pure L2
operation
VLAN ID 7
VLAN ID 5
A B
CD
Ethernet frame
MTU Last mile Metro core MTU Last mile
802.1p/q Network
802.1q (VLAN ID)
Classification (L2 MAC, port)
Policy/ACL
Rate-limiting
802.1q VLAN tagging
802.1p priority marking
802.1p (priority)
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
Lookup: {dst MAC addr. + VLAN ID}
Queueing: check 802.1p tag
Output link scheduling:
Priority scheduling based on 802.1p tag
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
A B
CD
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
802.1
p/q tag
2B
Type
0x8100
2BNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Case 2) Diff-serv(L3) to
802.1p mapping
VLAN ID 7
VLAN ID 5
A B
CD
Ethernet frame with TOS/DSCP setting
MTU Last mile Metro core MTU Last mile
802.1p/q Network
Classification:
port , L2 MAC addr., IP addr., TOS/DSCP
Policy/ACL
Rate-limiting
802.1q VLAN tagging
802.1p priority marking based-on TOS/DSCP
802.1q (VLAN ID)
802.1p (priority)
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
A B
CD
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
Lookup: {dst MAC addr. + VLAN ID}
Queueing: check 802.1p tag
Output link scheduling:
Priority scheduling based on 802.1p tag
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
802.1
p/q tag
2B
Type
0x8100
2BNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Case3) L4
prioritization
VLAN ID 7
VLAN ID 5
A B
CD
Ethernet frame
MTU Last mile Metro core MTU Last mile
802.1p/q Network
Lookup: {dst MAC addr. + VLAN ID}
Queueing: check 802.1p tag
Output link scheduling:
Priority scheduling based on 802.1p tag
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
A B
CD
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
Classification:
port , L2 MAC addr., IP addr., TOS/DSCP,
PID, TCP/UDP Port number
Policy/ACL
Rate-limiting
802.1q VLAN tagging
802.1p priority marking based-on TOS/DSCP, Port#
1 7 A B
2 5 CD
802.1q (VLAN ID)
802.1p (priority)
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Ethernet(L2) IP (L3) TDP/UDP (L4)
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
8B 6B 6B 2B 1B 4B 4B 1B 2B 2B 4B
Pre
dst
MAC
src
MAC
Type
0x0800
CRC
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
User
data
TOS
src
IP
dst port
number
802.1
p/q tag
2B
Type
0x8100
2B
A lication A lication A lication A lication 서비스 차별화 가능능Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Problem of VLAN-based
TLS service
VLAN space limitation: 4096 VLANs (VLAN
ID=12bits)
MAC address limitation
No Bandwidth reservation in metro core (end-toend)
No traffic engineering in metro core (STP Path)
Slow restoration time(STP, RSTP, EAPS)Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
VLAN space limitation
~ 4096
802.1q
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
802.1q
802.1q 802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
VLAN 1
VLAN 4096Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Supported MAC address
limitation
802.1q
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
802.1q
802.1q 802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
Metro Core Ethernet Switches must learn
MAC addresses of
1) Customer router, if  CPE = L3
2) Individual machine, if CPE = L2Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
No Traffic
Engineering
802.1q
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
802.1q
802.1q 802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
Not Traffic-Engineered Path
(Path determined by STP)
VLAN 100’s PathNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
No end-to-end BW
guarantee
802.1q
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
802.1q
802.1q 802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
No BW reservation for VLAN’s connection in Metro Core
No BW guarantee in Metro Core
Only provide priority queueing (802.1p)
VLAN 100’s PathNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
No End-to-end BW
reservation
BW shared by 3 VLAN traffics:
No BW guarantee in metro core trunk link
Priority queueing: 802.1p
200M
500M
500M
700M
500M
500M
1200M
VLAN A
VLAN B
VLAN C
Ingress rate limitingNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
MPLS in Metro Optical
Ethernet Network
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
802.1q
802.1q 802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
LER
LER
MPLS
LSR
LSR
MPLS tunnelNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Ethernet over MPLS:
Martini draft
Martini Internet draft:
Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS
(draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls-01.txt )
Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS
(draft-martini-l2circuit-trans-mpls-05.txt)
Layer 2 PDU (frame relay, ATM AAL5, Ethernet)를 MPLS Network을 통해 전달
하는 절차(Encapsulation, Level distribution)를 기술
No IP routing in Provider’s Network (LER/PE and LSR/P)
Service Provider provides L2 connectivity only
MPLS-based L2 circuit
Metro Ethernet에 Martini draft를 적용
Ethernet over MPLS (MPLS over Ethernet) network
(Tunnel LSP, VC LSP, Encapsulation)Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Tunnel LSP
MTU
LER, R1
LSR
LER, R2
LSR
Suppose it is desired to transport layer 2 PDUs from
ingress LSR R1 to egress LSR R2, across an
intervening MPLS network. We assume that there is an
LSP from R1 to R2. That is, we assume that R1 can
cause a packet to be delivered to R2 by pushing some
label onto the packet and sending the result to one of its
adjacencies. Call this label the \"tunnel label\", and the
corresponding LSP the \"tunnel LSP\".
tunnel LSP 1
tunnel LSP: LER(PE)간에 설정
- LER 목적지 LER이 같은
VLAN traffic
Aggregation  
tunnel LSP 2
tunnel LSP 3Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
VC LSP
MTU
LER, R1
LSR
LER, R2
LSR
VLAN
100
VLAN
100
VLAN
50
VLAN
50
VLAN
200 VLAN
200
Egress LER, R2
Must know how to treat the received frame
=> Define “VC label (VC LSP)”
R2 can infer form the VC label
the outgoing interface and perhaps the VLAN ID
DA SA 0x8847 S2 S1 DA SA E-type L3 PDU
VC LSP
VC LSP = per VLAN LSP
- Egress LER에서 각각각각의 VLAN
Label값만 보고보고 알알 수수 있게있게 해준다.Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Frame flow over MPLS
Network
MTU
LER
LSR
LER
LSR
MAC
A
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
MAC
BNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
MTU Access
Switch
Ethernet Type
0x0800: IPv4
0x0806: arp
0x8035: rarp
0x8100: vlan
IPX
IPv6
Rfc1700,
LER
LSR
LER
LSR
MAC
A 1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
MAC
B
MTU
MAC  VLAN ID  outgoing port
B         100 3
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x0800)
1 2
3
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
VLAN taggingNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
Ingress LER
LER
LSR
LER
LSR
MAC
A 1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
MAC
B
MTU
1 2
3
MAC  VLAN ID  outgoing port    Tunnel Label VC label Label
A         100 4              5       8
1) VLAN-to-LSP mapping (Label push)
- Tunnel LSP: aggregation LSP
- VC LSP: per-VLAN LSP
2) CoS(Ext) field marking
Classification (802.1p/MFPC)
3) Outer MAC header (MACs of LSRs)
Outer
Ethernet
Header
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
DA
b
SA
a
E-type
(0x8847)
Tunnel
label(5)
VC
label(8)
Label stack Original 802.1q frame
a
bNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
LSR
LER
LSR
LER
LSR
MAC
A 1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
MAC
B
MTU
1 2
3
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
DA
d
SA
c
E-type
(0x8847)
Tunnel
label (30)
VC
label (8)
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
DA
b
SA
a
E-type
(0x8847)
Tunnel
label (5)
VC
label (8)
1) Label Swapping: Tunnel Label
2) Rewrite MAC header
Incoming port  Tunnel Label outgoing port  Tunnel Label
1          5              3           30
c
dNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
LSR
LER
LSR
LER
LSR
MAC
A 1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
MAC
B
MTU
1 2
3
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
DA
f
SA
e
E-type
(0x8847)
VC
label (8)
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
DA
d
SA
c
E-type
(0x8847)
Tunnel
label (30)
VC
label (8)
1) Pop Tunnel label
2) Rewrite MAC header
Incoming port  Tunnel Label outgoing port
1          5              3
e
fNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Egress LER
LER
LSR
LER
LSR
MAC
A 1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
MAC
B
MTU
1 2
3
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
DA
f
SA
e
E-type
(0x8847)
VC
label (8)
1) Pop VC label
2) Infer from VC label how to process
the original frame (output port)
Incoming port   VC Label outgoing port
1          8                          4
e
f
Original 802.1q frameNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
MTU Distribution
Switch
LER
LSR
LER
LSR
MAC
A 1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
MAC
B
MTU
1 2
3
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
802.1p/q
(2/100)
DA
B
SA
A
E-type
(0x8100)
E-type
(0x0800)
L3 PDU
(IP packet)
e
f
MAC  VLAN ID  outgoing port
B         100 1
1 2
3Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Good of MPLS
VLAN space 문제 해결 (VLAN ID Reuse)
Metro Core에서 MAC주소수 문제 해결
Traffic Engineering in Metro Core
Protection: MPLS Fast Reroute (<100msec)
MPLS QoS: LSP별로 차별화 또는 Ext/CoS비트
MPLS-based Layer 2 VPN
Scalability
SecurityNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
VLAN ID Reuse
Egress LER VLAN ID overwrite하지 않
는 경우
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
LER
LER
MPLS
LSR
LSR
MPLS tunnel
12
13
10
11
VLAN ID
10
11
14
15
16
17
12
13
14
15
10
11
12
13
14
15 16
17
VLAN ID Reuse
Reuse not allowedNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
MAC address
learning
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
802.1q
802.1q 802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
LER 802.1q
MPLS
MAC address learning
Metro core customer MAC address VLAN ID 노출되지
.
따라서, MAC address learning 필요가 없다 요가 .
LER LER에 연결된 연결된 지역의 customer MAC learning하면 된다.
LER
MAC address
learning &Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Traffic Engineering in
Metro Core
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
MTU
802.1q
802.1q 802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
802.1q
LER
LER
MPLS
LSR
MAC address learning LSRNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Good of MPLS
MTU
LER/PE
LSR/P
LER/PE
LSR/P
VLAN space 문제 해결 (VLAN ID Reuse)
Metro Core , 학습해야 할 해야
MAC address수 문제문제 해결
VLAN
VLAN
VLAN
MPLS
• Traffic Engineering
in Metro Core
• MPLS restoration
- pre-established standby LSP
- Fast  Reroute
• MPLS QoSNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Ethernet over MPLS
Solutions
Riverstone
Extreme
Foundry
Cisco
Nortel
JuniperNetmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Conclusion
Metro is HOT!
SONET alternatives
Metro Optical Ethernet
MSPP
Metro DWDM
Metro Optical Ethernet
Transparent LAN interconnection, Internet access, xSP access
Technologies = Long rage optic(GBIC,CWDM) + 802.1p/q + RPR + MPLS + 10GbE
MPLS gives intelligent features to Metro Optical Ethernet
Features
\' Low-cost network infrastructure  
\' High BW to customer
\' Low price to customer
\' Carrier class reliability
\' Carrier class availability(99.999%)
\' Carrier class restoration (<50msec)
\' CoS/QoS
\' Rate-limiting
\' real-time BW provisioning
\' Usage Based Billing
\' Security
VLAN space 문제 해결 (VLAN ID Reuse)
Metro Core , 학습해야 할 해야 MAC address수 문제해결
Traffic Engineering in Metro Core
MPLS restoration
- pre-established standby LSP
- Fast  Reroute
MPLS QoS
New Startup, Fiber-rich,
Data-Oriented Service Provider 최적적Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
References on
Metro/Ethernet/MPLS
Vendor White papers
Riverstone Networks (http://www.riverstonenet.com)
\' MPLS:Making the Most of Ethernet in the Metro
\' MPLS-based Transparent LAN services
\' Deploying MPLS in MANs
\' Implementing MPLS in Metro IP Networks
Extreme Networks (http://www.extremenetworks.com/)
\' Leveraging MPLS Enhance Network Transport Capabilities
Juniper (http://www.juniper.net/)
\' MPLS-based Layer 2 Virtual Private Networks
RFC (www.ietf.org)
Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture (RFC 3031)
MPLS Label Stack Encoding (RFC 3032)
Internet draft (www.ietf.org)
Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS (draftmartini-l2circuit-encap-mpls-01.txt)
Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS (draft-martini-l2circuit-trans-mpls-
05.txt)Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper Netmanias white paper
Thank You
손 장 우
Network Manias
son@netmanias.com
www.netmanias.com
016-3460-5747
banner

 

 

     
         
     

 

     
     

넷매니아즈 회원 가입 하기

2020년 1월 현재 넷매니아즈 회원은 49,000+분입니다.

 

넷매니아즈 회원 가입을 하시면,

► 넷매니아즈 신규 컨텐츠 발행 소식 등의 정보를

   이메일 뉴스레터로 발송해드립니다.

► 넷매니아즈의 모든 컨텐츠를 pdf 파일로 다운로드

   받으실 수 있습니다. 

     
     

 

     
         
     

 

 

비밀번호 확인
코멘트 작성시 등록하신 비밀번호를 입력하여주세요.
비밀번호