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현재 메트로 네트워크의 문제점과 메트로 이더넷 기술
Problem of Current Metro Network - Solution: Metro Ethernet
January 12, 2001 | By Netmanias (tech@netmanias.com)
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손장우 @ Netmanias (tech@netmanias.com)

 

▣ 1월 12일에 열린 제1회 네트워크 매니아즈 워크샵(presentation for the 1st netmanias workshop) ▣ 1월 17일 한국통신(가입자망 연구소, 대전 유성) (presentation for Korea Telecom) ▣ 2월 데이콤 본사(presentation for Dacom) 에서 발표한 자료입니다.

Thank you for visiting Netmanias! Please leave your comment if you have a question or suggestion.
Transcript
The 1st Network Manias Workshop
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1
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Content
Internet Big Picture
Metro Area Network
Problem of SONET/SDH networks
Metro Ethernet 기술
Metro Ethernet Vendors
ESP (Ethernet Service Provider)
Conclusion
2/68
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Internet Big Picture
IP
IP
Metro
Backbone
Metro
Applications:
VoD, Conferencing, VPN Voice,
E-commerce, Entertainment, banking
Metro  POP
CO
CO
Contents
User
Business
Residential
User
IP Core
IP aggregation
IP access
IP aggregation
IP access
Residential
Metro Core
Metro Access
(“last mile”)
Internet
Backbone
Metro Core
Metro Access
(“last mile”)
Global Internet
or Other ISP
Business
Metro  POP
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Internet Big Picture
ISP POP
CO
Metro Core
Metro Access
(“last mile”)
Internet
Backbone
Transport Core
(Long-haul)
DWDM
OADM, OXC
Metro
Transport Core
CWDM
DWDM
Metro
Transport Access
젂화선,HFC
TDM(copper)
FTTX
CWDM/DWDM
Wireless
Enterprise
GE/10GE
ATM
User
Contents
Customer
Premise
붂산화
ResidentialxDSL케이블DialupE/FE/GE
Leased line (TDM)
xDSL
Cable modem
GE, PON
POS, DPT
ATM, FR
xDSL
GE/10GE(MPLS)
멀티서비스SONET
Dialup
POS(GSR)
ATM
TDM(SONET)
MPLS
DPT
Ethernet(GE/10GE)
멀티서비스SONET
POS(TSR)
ATM
10GBE
MPLS
MP.S
IP Core
IP aggregation
IP access
Function
Area
Transport
Network
Core
Tech.
SONET
SONET
4/68
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Purple Oval
Purple Oval
Purple Oval
Purple Oval
Purple Oval
Purple Oval
Purple Oval
Purple Oval
Metro, Backbone ?
대젂
젂주
대구
부산
원주
Metro
Core
CO
(광화문)
CO
(여의도)
CO
(강남)
(혜화)
CO
(일산)
Metro
Access
gold square
POP
서울
gold square
gold square
gold square
gold square
gold square
gold square
POP
gold square
광주
Metro/Regional Network
Backbone Network
Global Internet
POP
POP
POP
POP
POP
POP
POP: backbone 접속점
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Ex1) Dacom BoraNet: Internet access
map
부산
진주
울산
김해
통영
TDM access
network
서울강남
천리안, ftp, E-mail, Web 서버
Co-location
2.5Gbps SDH Ring
2.5Gbps SDH Ring
ADM
ADM/DCS
서울강북
n.64Kbps
T1/E1, T3/E3
Channelized DS3
Enterprise
GSR
Ethernet
Global
Internet
(825Mbps)
Other ISP
contents
POS
POS
155M
155M
45M
45M
155M
155M
45M
광주
목포
여수
SDH 젂송망백본
aggregation
aggregation
aggregation
access
access
GSR
GSR
cisco7500
cisco7500
cisco7500
cisco7500
cisco7500
cisco7500
cisco7500
cisco7500
cisco7500
cisco7500
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
GSR
대젂
IP 백본
Enterprise
140Km
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Ex2) Hanaro Network
RT
COT
RT
COT
DSLAM
(ASAM)
PBX
Router
FTTO (가입자빌딩)
FTTC (아파트)
젂용회선(I-direct)
CO
RT
RT
RT
RT
POP
음성
교홖기
ATM 교홖기
WB-DCS
CO
RAS
CO
Other ISP
NAP
GW
라우터
ATM
라우터
L2SW
To/From
Other Cities
contents
국제/시외/이동젂화
ATM/STM
Hybrid
Statistical multiplexing
OC48
2.5Gbps SDH Ring
OC3
OC3
IP access
.ATM: 젂용회선, ADSL
.STM: Voice
ADM
(SDH 2.5Gbps)
ATM PVC access
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Ex3) TDM leased line
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Internet Performance 병목구간은?
IP
IP
Metro
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
Contents
User
Business
Residential
Business
User
Residential
Global Internet
or Other ISP
.먼저, Enterprise LAN은Gigabit Ethernet의도입.사용자당100Mbps, 스위치와스위치간,  스위치와서버간1Gbps
.Residential accessxDSL, Cable Modem 도입.사용자당수Mbps
Metro  POP
Metro  POP
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Backbone은?
IP
IP
Metro
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
Contents
User
Business
Residential
LAN
User
IP Core
Residential
Fiber
IP /(MPLS)
ATM
SONET
DWDM
SONET
DWDM
DWDM
GbE/
10GbE
SONET
DWDM
GbE/10GbE
Current
Cost Down
TSR
OADM
OXC
OPS
병목해소
Metro  POP
Metro  POP
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Metro는?
IP
IP
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
Contents
User
Business
Residential
LAN
User
IP access & aggregation
Residential
Copper/Fiber
IP
VT/SONET
Metro
Lanza(Mayan) says, “Traffic races over gigabit networks inside office buildings and within the Internet core, but when it travels between them it has to squeeze through a copper line-and that line is turtle-slow”
Young(Yipes) says, “Your data leaves your office going nice and fast, hits the local phone company and turns into a snail, then takes off again when it reaches the backbone.until it hits the next phone company”
Global Internet or Other ISP
-nDS0, T1, T3 Leased line(64K, 256K, 516K, 1.544M,2.048M, 45M)
#NAME?
Metro  POP
Metro  POP
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그렇다면, Bottleneck은?
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
LAN
Residential
Metro
-nDS0, T1, T3 Leased line(64K, 256K, 516K, 1.544M,2.048M, 45M)

EnterpriseGE 도입.Fast (Gigabit)
backbone
IP/DWDM, TSR
OADM, OXC, OPS
.Fast (Gigabit/Terabit)
Residential Cable, xDSL, and Broadband Wireless.Fast (Mbps/user)
2
Contents
User
User
Global Internet or Other ISP
Metro  POP
Metro  POP
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Analogy
Metro
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
Business
Residential
Residential
Global Internet
Business
시내도로망
고속도로망
시내도로망
Toll
gate
Toll
gate
Business
Residential
Residential
Business
김포공항
서울
부산
서울
부산
DWDM 80 CH .80 차선MPLS .고속도로, 국도우회(부하붂산)
혼잡극심
Metro  POP
Metro  POP
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그렇다면Metro, Internet access맊문제인가? .새로운MAN 응용의출현
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
LAN
Residential
Metro
DC-27RACB
DC-27RACB
Contents(localization)
Legacy application:
Web server, Co-location,
Global Internet access
New application의출현:
ASP, CSP, DBSP
Global Internet or Other ISP
Metro  POP
Metro  POP
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그렇다면, 현재MAN은왜모양인가?
현재, Business Internet access, private line은SONET/SDH 기반젂송망을이용하는데, 이SONET/SDH망의문제는
Circuit switching/TDM, BW allocation flexibility
Upgrade ?, Long lead time
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원래SONET/SDH망은…
SONET/SDH network
Voice traffic
(64Kbps,
continuous stream)
Data traffic(Bursy)
Ok!
?
CODEC
CODEC
CODEC
CODEC
TDM



Analog Voice 1
Analog Voice 24
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH23
CH24
---
T1 frame (125.sec)
PCM
(64Kbps)
SONET은TDM channel상으로Voice Traffic을젂달핛목적으로설계되었다.(Time division multiplexing, Circuit switching)
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Problem (1): Circuit switching/TDM .비효율적이다!
PCM Voice
64Kbps(= 8bit/125.sec) continuous bit stream
발생율
서비스율(circuit)
SONET은TDM channel상으로Voice Traffic을젂달핛목적으로설계되었다.(Time division multiplexing, Circuit switching) .Bursty data traffic 젂송에비효율적이다
Data traffic: highly-bursty
발생율
서비스율(circuit)
BW wasted !
No Problem !
Voice Traffic .Circuit service
Data Traffic .Circuit service
a 64Kbps circuit
1
2
3
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
1
2
3
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Problem (2): Circuit switching/TDM .고가다!
OC3:  84 T1’s or 3 T3’sOC12: 336 T1s or 12 T3sOC48: 1344 T1’s or 48 T3’s
맋은가입자수용이불가!
SONET/SDH
Core Ring
(OC12/48)
SONET/SDH
access
Ring
(OC3/12)
ADM
DCS
ISP POP
Enterprise A본사
Enterprise A지사
T1
젂용회선
인터넷젂용회선
TDM dedicated Circuit, not shared!Statistical Multiplexing불가
Enterprise B
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Problem (3): Ethernet계위와SONET계위
DS1(1.5M)
DS3
(45M)
OC3
(155M)
CODEC
CODEC
CODEC
CODEC
TDM



Analog Voice 1
Analog Voice 24
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH23
CH24
---
T1 frame (125.sec)
1.544Mbps
PCM64Kbps
DS1(1.5M)
DS3
(45M)
OC3
(155M)
E: 10Mbps
FE: 100Mbps
SONET 계위
Ethernet 계위
?
Data Traffic (LAN 94% = Ethernet)
Voice Traffic (64Kbps PCM)
24 DS0 CHs
28xDS1
672
DS0 CHs
3xDS3
= 2,016
DS0 CHs
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SONET망으로Data traffic을젂달하는것은…
SONET/SDH network
Voice traffic
(64Kbps,
continuous stream)
Data traffic
(Bursy)
Ok!
?.적합치않다.!
1)비효율적이다: Bursty data traffic을TDM방식으로서비스하는것은대역폭의낭비를가지고온다.
2)고가이다: TDM circuit을독점하며다른사용자의트래픽과통계적다중화가되지않으므로! 따라서링크대역폭당가용사용자수가적다. (T1~200맊원/월, T3~5,000맊원/월)
3)Ethernet 계위와SONET/SDH계위가맞지않는다: 10Mbps 젂용선을원하는경우45Mbps T3 line을써야핚다.
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더굮다나… : Data traffic의폭증
현재SONET Ring
용량핚계임박
이유
Internet
Leased line
ASP, CSP
DBSP
Source:RHK
SONET/SDH Ring
ADM
ATM
Router
VoiceSwitch
Voice Traffic
Data Traffic
ADM
ADM
DCS
그렇다면, SONET Ring을upgrade하자…
emerging_architecture_a
Data Traffic의급증
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Problem (4): Upgrade ?
OC12/48ADM
DWDM
Ring
OC12
ADM
WDM
MUX
1. Replace all ADMs: OC12.OC48
2. Deploy another Ring
3. Deploy DWDM
SONET Ring
OC12
OC12ADM
OC12
ADM
OC12ADM
OC12ADM
SONET Ring
OC48
OC48
ADM
OC48
ADM
OC48
ADM
OC48ADM
SONET Ring
OC12
OC12/48
ADM
OC12/48
ADM
OC12ADM
OC12ADM
SONET Ring
OC12
OC12
ADM
OC12ADM
OC12
ADM
OC12ADM
All the solution .high cost
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Problem (5): Long lead time (수주-수개월)
T1
1
28

ADM
SONET access Ringe.g. OC3(155Mbps)
2
3
T3

Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
M13
MUX
Ex) Multitenant office buildings
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Problem (5): Long lead time (수주-수개월)
T1
1
28

2
3
T3

Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
M13
MUX
ADM
ADM/DCS
ADM/DCS
CP
ISP POP
Internet
SONET AccessRing
SONET Core
Ring
LEC’s
infrastructure
people31
Inverse multiplexing( 2T1s.logically 1 T1)
Provision the additional
T1 line
from SONNET MUX
to customer’s router
TruckRolls
Enterprise: T1 하나더주세요^^
Service provider: Yes, wait…
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MAN = Emerging Market
Internet access
(ISP)
VoD
ASP
CSP
DBSP
DistributedContents
Super MAN이
요구됨
New Technologies 개발및적용
New Service Provider 탄생
Mini Core
Backbone
Metro
ISP POP
ISP POP
CO
CO
LAN
Residential
Metro
Global Internet or Other ISP
Legacy SONET
1) 비효율성
2) 고가
3) BW flexibility
4) Upgrade
5) Long lead time
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marketCIR
Market Forecast
CIR, July 27, 2000
5-year forecast (Metro/Access)USA
Next-generation data aware SONET
Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet
pure packet-over-light
nortel
DataQuest, Dec. 1999
5-year forecast (GE/10GbE MAN/WAN)Global
$3.5 Billion by 2004
$3.6 Billion by 2004
Ethernet Switch Revenue Projected to Exceed $23 Billion in 2004According to Dell\'Oro Group 5 Year Forecast
(Dell\'Oro , Feb. 15 2000)
graph
Pioneerconsulting, 09/13/2000
5-year forecast (Multiservice SONET)
North America
$0.93 Billion by 2000
$6.30 Billion by 2004
Next-generation SONET
(Multiservice SONET)
AT&T, Allied Riser, Alidian Networks, Appian Communications, Astral Point Communications, ATG, Broadband Office, Broadwing, Centerpoint Broadband Technologies, Chromatis Networks, Ciena, Cisco Systems, Coriolis Networks, Cyras Systems, Extreme Networks, Fujitsu Network Communications, Global Crossing, Geyser Networks, Kestrel Solutions, Lantern Communications, Level3, Lucent Technologies, LuxN, Luminous Networks, Marconi Communications, Mayan Networks, Metro-Optix, Nortel Networks, Quantum Bridge, Qwest, Redback/Siara Systems, Sirocco Systems, Sprint, Terawave, Tropic Networks, WorldCom and Zaffire.
ADVA, Alcatel, Alidian, Astral Point, Atmosphere/Ditech, Ciena, Cisco , Cyras, Ericsson, Kestrel, Lucent, Marconi, Mayan, NEC, Nortel, ONI , Quantum Bridge, Redback/Siara, Sorrento, Siemens, Sycamore/Sirocco, Terawave, Zaffire
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Acquisition Trend
Acquisition spending for key optical systems companies totaled $37.8 billion in the last 18 months
2000년9월현재Optical Metro Vendors ~ 30+
99년8월: Cerent(300) .CiscoSystems Inc. ($7 billion)
99년11월: Siara Systems(206).Redback Networks Inc. ($4.3 billion)
2000년6월: Chromatis Networks Inc.(130).Lucent, $ 4.5billion
2000년6월: Sirocco Systems Inc.(65).Sycamore($2.88 Billion)
2000년7월:Atmosphere (?).Ditech($ 88.5 Million)(  ):Employees
Other Vendor ~ Initial Public Offering ~ 막대핚투자(by Venture Capitals)
비고) 1999년Hot acquisition .Gigabit/Terabit Router1999년4월: Ericsson, Torrent 인수(규모)1999년6월: Siemens, Argon 인수1999년6월: Lucent, Nexabit 인수1999년6월: Tellabs, Netcore 인수현재: 교통정리완료Cisco .Juniper > Avici, Nortel, Ericsson, Pluris, Ironbridge, Charlotte
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New Metro Technologies  
IP
IP
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
Contents
User
Business
Residential
LAN
User
Residential
Metro
Copper/Fiber
IP (/MPLS)
ATM
SONET
DWDM
VT/SONET
DWDM
DWDM
Current
New Solution
DPT
DWDM
GbE/10GbE
DWDM
ATM VPRing
DWDM
Multiservice
SONET
VT/SONET
인터넷, 사설망
인터넷, 사설망
인터넷(*)
* Metro에서Routing 수행
Metro  POP
Metro  POP
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Metro  POP
Metro  POP
New Metro Technologies  
IP
IP
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
Contents
User
Business
Residential
LAN
User
Residential
Metro
Copper/Fiber
IP (/MPLS)
ATM
SONET
DWDM
VT/SONET
DWDM
DWDM
Current
New Solution
DTM
DWDM
DWDM
ATM VP
Ring
DWDM
Multiservice
SONET
VT/SONET
인터넷, 사설망
인터넷, 사설망
인터넷(*)
* Metro에서Routing 수행
GbE/
10GbE
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Gigabit Ethernet Approach
장점
Cheap
Easy to maintain and operate
Statistical multiplexing (cf. SONET)
Scalability (10GbE)
Fast/Dynamic Provisioning
BW Granularity(++1M)
기존Ethernet이못가지고있었던기술
Network Scalability (VLAN)
QoS ~ comparable to ATM
Survivability ~ comparable to SONET
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Ethernet의장점
94 % of installed LAN = Ethernet
Large pool of trained network administrators
SONET과는달리패킷스위칭이므로통계적다중화효과를얻을수있다.
대량생산으로인핚칩셋및스위치가격하락
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Ethernet: Cost-Effective Solution
lantern
Source: Lantern Communication
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Average Selling Point for Gbps
2472_3
$950
$7,652
$485
$3,143
SP는동일핚용량의시스템을
구매하기위해
예를들어,
Ethernet 장비: $150,000
SONET 장비: $1000,000
Source: Dell’Oro Group
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Ethernet이MAN/WAN으로나갈때문제
기존Ethernet이못가지고있었던기술
Network Scalability
.Long range optic: up to 70Km without transport equipments
.이더넷네트워크확장문제(Segmentation 문제)
.VLAN, VMAN, VLAN SA
.Router/L3 switch
.MPLS
.이더넷네트워크을MAN/WAN급으로확장가능
QoS ~ comparable to ATM
.Vendors redesign their Ethernet switch (not your Ethernet LAN switch)
.QoS/CoS guarantee
.Customer별BW 보장, 응용별BW 보장
.MPLS 도입(Connection 개념도입, 자원예약/VPN/QoS 해결)
.ATM과동일핚수준의QoS 보장가능
Survivability ~ comparable to SONET
.Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) : IEEE 802.17
.원래는Cisco의DPT(SRP)임.
.IPS(Intelligent Protection Switching) 기능으로SONET 레벨의망복구능력이가능
1Gbps의핚계
.10Gbps 표준화로가능
Customer-Billing
99.999% availability
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Netmanias
VPN based on VLAN
802.1q VLAN
802.1p priority queueing
Concept of VLAN-based VPN
Problem of VLAN-based VPN
Insufficient VLAN number
Spanning Tree Algorithm
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Netmanias
IEEE 802.1q VLAN
VLAN: A logical group of nodes, consists of clients and servers that reside in a common broadcast domain, without any router hops.
Virtual의의미: 단말들이서로다른스위치또는서로다른빌딩에있어도마치물리적으로하나의LAN segment (Broadcast domain)에속핚것처럼인식된다.
A
B
C
D
E
F
A
B
D
C
E
F
VLAN 1 member
VLAN 2 member
등가
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
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Netmanias
IEEE 802.1q VLAN
Pre
src
MAC
dstMAC
Type/
Length
CRC
802.1qVLAN tag
8B
6B
6B
4B
2B
46-1500B
4B
Pre
src
MAC
dst
MAC
Type/
Length
CRC
8B
6B
6B
2B
46-1500B
4B
Ethernet Frame
802.1q Frame
TPI
Priority
CFI
VLAN ID
Max 1518 B
Max 1522 B
16 b
3 b
1 b
12 b
TIF(Tag Control Information)
TPID(Tag Protocol Identifier Field) = 8100 (Ethernet)
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Concept of VLAN-based VPN
MAC
addr. A
MAC
addr. B
Untaggedport
SA   VLAN ID   Port-7             1-12           1A        7            2Z        12           3
Port 2
Manually
configured
Port 1
1. MAC frame 젂달
2. AS1는MAC B를모르므로VLAN에속핚멤버에게Broadcasting (즉, to Port1)
이때, Port 1은Tagged port로Access switch는VLAN ID 7을태킹하여port1으로젂달핚다.
3. CS1는SAT을보고없으므로
-SAT에{A, 7, 1}을기록하고
-Port 2와3로브로드캐스팅핚다.
4. CS2와3는B가SAT에없으므로SAT에기록하고브로드캐스팅핚다.
이때CS2와CS3간에링크는없는것으로인식되어(STP:loop 방지l) CS2와3는AS2와3로맊프레임을젂달하며
서로간에는젂달하지않는다.
5.  AS2는VLAN 7이자싞의port 2에정의되어있으므로Tag를제거하고Port 2로젂달핚다. {A  7 1}학습
AS3는도착프레임을폐기핚다.
AS1
MAC addr. M
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-5             1
-6             1
M       5            2
N        6            3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-8             1
B         7            2
K         8            3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
SA   VLAN ID   Port
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
SA   VLAN ID   Port
CS1
CS3
CS2
AS2
AS3
Manuallyconfigured
Manually
configured
1
3
2
A
B
.
7
A
B
.
.
A        7            1  (학습)
7
A
B
7
A
B
.
.
7
A
B
7
A
B
.
.
.
.
A        7            1  (학습)
.폐기
.
A
B
.
A        7             1 (학습)
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Netmanias
Concept of VLAN-based VPN
MAC
addr. A
B
A
MAC addr. A
Untagged
port
Port 2
Port 1
.
.
AS1
MAC
addr. H
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
7
B
A
.
.
.
B
A
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
SA   VLAN ID   Port
A        7            1
B         7           2 (학습)
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
.
CS1
CS3
CS2
AS2
AS3
SA   VLAN ID   PortA        7            1B         7            3 (학습)
.
1
3
2
7
B
A
7
B
A
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-12           1
A        7            2
Z        12           3
B         7            1 (학습)
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-8             1
B         7            2
K         8            3
A        7             1
.
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Netmanias
Concept of VLAN-based VPN
MAC
addr. A
MAC addr. A
Untaggedport
Port 2
Port 1
AS1
MAC
addr. M
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
CS1
CS3
CS2
AS2
AS3
1
3
2
VLAN 7
SA   VLAN ID   PortA        7            1B         7           2
SA   VLAN ID   Port
A        7            1
B         7            3
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-12           1
A        7            2
Z        12           3
B         7            1)
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-8             1
B         7            2
K         8            3
A        7             1
본사의라우터와지사의라우터간에
Ethernet VPN(Ethernet MAN상의두라우터간에VLAN) 생성됨.
Virtual Path (ATM, MPLS와유사핚) 제공
MAC addr. + VLAN ID .Label
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-5             1
-6             1
M       5            2
N        6            3
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Netmanias
Ethernet VPN security
MAC addr. A
MAC
addr. A
Port 2
Port 1
AS1
MAC
addr. M
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
CS1
CS3
CS2
AS2
AS3
1
3
2
SA   VLAN ID   PortA        7            1B         7           2
SA   VLAN ID   Port
A        7            1
B         7            3
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-12           1
A        7            2
Z        12           3
B         7            1
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-8             1
B         7            2
K         8            3
A        7             1
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-5             1
-6             1
M       5            2
N        6            3
Port 3
MAC addr. Z
Port 1과Port 2는서로다른VLAN 이므로
1) 건물내다른회사로access 차단!
2) 다른건물의타회사에서access 불가!
41/68
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Netmanias
Ethernet VPN security
MAC
addr. A
MAC
addr. B
Port 2
Port 1
AS1
MAC addr. M
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
CS1
CS3
CS2
AS2
AS3
1
3
2
SA   VLAN ID   Port
A        7            1
B         7           2
SA   VLAN ID   Port
A        7            1
B         7            3
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-12           1
A        7            2
Z        12           3
B         7            1
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-8             1
B         7            2
K         8            3
A        7             1
SA   VLAN ID   Port-5             1-6             1M       5            2N        6            3
Port 3
MAC addr. Z
다른건물의타회사에서access 불가!
Port 2는untagged port이므로사용자가
VLAN ID12를태킹하여보내도태그값을버리므로
역시다른회사로access불가
MAC
addr. K
12
A
Z
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Netmanias
Ethernet QoS
Pre
src
MAC
dst
MAC
Type/
Length
CRC
802.1qVLAN tag
8B
6B
6B
4B
2B
46-1500B
4B
802.1p/q Frame
TPI
Priority
CFI
VLAN ID
Max 1522 B
16 b
3 b
1 b
12 b
7
DA
1
12
DA
3
7
DA
1
x
DA
3
7
DA
1
12
DA
3
Priority
Field
체크
Highest Priority
Lowest Priority
Priority Field
43/68
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Netmanias
Ethernet QoS
MAC
addr. A
MAC
addr. A
Port 2
Port 1
AS1
MAC addr. M
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
CS1
CS3
CS2
AS2
AS3
1
3
2
SA   VLAN ID   Port-7             1-12           1A        7            2Z        12           3B         7            1
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-7             1
-8             1
B         7            2
K         8            3
A        7             1
SA   VLAN ID   Port
-5            1
-12           1
M        5            2
N        12           3
Port 3
MAC
addr. Z
VLAN 12
Priority class A
VLAN 7
Priority class B
MAC
addr. N
44/68
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Netmanias
Problem of VLAN-based VPN
L2 flat Network에서지원가능핚VLAN의수
802.1q의VLAN ID는12 bits
4096개의VLAN 정의가능, 즉최대4096가입자수용가능.insufficient for Metro Service !
Vendor Solutions
.Nortel Networks(L2): VLAN ID를24비트로확장. 17M개VLAN정의가능. 표준화준비중
.Extreme Networks(L2): VMAN
.Foundry(L2): VLAN Super Aggregation
.Riverstone(L2.5): MPLS
Spanning Tree Algorithm의long convergence time
45/68
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Netmanias
VPN based on MPLS
Riverstone
Foundry
46/68
1
Netmanias
QoS
Ethernet QoS (L2): 802.1p/q
IP QoS (L3): Diff-serv, Int-serv
MPLS QoS (L2.5)
H/W queueing architecture
47/68
1
Netmanias
Scalability: 10GbE
ieee
IEEE 802.3ae schedule
48/68
1
Netmanias
10 GEA’s View
10gea
End-to-end Ethernet
49/68
1
Netmanias
Fiber availability
빌딩지하통싞실로Fiber 인입구간이문제
빌딩구내배선문제
Multi-tenant Office Building
Long-haul GE
(GBIC)
Ethernet Switch(L2/L3)
GbE/10GbE
MAN Core
Basement
UTP Cat 5Fiber
CPE: Router or
L3 switch
10% of MTU (US)
15% of MTU (US)
MFN, OnFiber
50/68
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Netmanias
Vendor Solution
Metro Ethernet Vendors
Riverstone Networks(http://www.riverstonenet.com)
Extreme Networks(http://www.extremenetworks.com)
Foundry (http://www.foundrynetworks.com)
Cisco (http://www.cisco.com)
Atrica (http://www.atrica.com)
VIPswitch (http://www.vipswitch.com)
Lantern Communications (http://www.lanterncommunications.com)
Luminous Networks (http://www.luminousnetworks.com)
World Wide Packets (http://www.worldwidepackets.com)
Nortel Networks (http://www.nortel.com)
Sycamore (www.sycamorenet.com)
51/68
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Netmanias
Riverstone의Optical Ethernet MAN solution
RS’s Optical Ethernet MAN
Solution: High Speed Business Internet Access and secure VPN
100 Mbps / tenant
QoS, Customer Billing, BOD(Bandwidth On Demand)
Metro access platform: RS3000, RS8000
Metro aggregation platform: RS8600, RS32000
Ethernet and MPLS
Ethernet: cost effective, bandwidth rich
MPLS: control over L2 connectionless network
MPLS VPN
MPLS QOS
Core Technologies
MPLS (VPN, QoS, ASP, CSP, DBSP)
HRL (Hardware Rate Limiting)
Multi-Field Packet Classification
eQoS (4 Priority queueing: WRED, SPQ, WFQ)
Billing (Customer Billing)
52/68
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Netmanias
Riverstone의Optical Ethernet MAN solution
Metro
Backbone
Metro
ISP POP
ISP POP
CO
CO
Business
Business
Global Internetor Other ISP
rs3000
RS3000
rs8000
RS8000
rs32000
rs8600
rs32000
rs8600
rs32000
rs8600
RS8600
RS32000
MTU
MTU
ASP/CSP network
ISP POP
Metroaccess
Metro Core
(aggregation)
Long-haul GE (70Km)
/ATM/POS/WDM
/T1/T3
32 Ethernet
(E/FE)
Ethernet
Long-haul GE (70Km)
WDM/10GbE/
ATM/POS/TDM
rs3000
53/68
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Netmanias
Riverstone의Optical Ethernet MAN solution
rs8600
MetroAggregationPlatform:RS32000
Features.up to 128Gbps nonblocking SF
.up to 90 Mpps forwarding rate
.IP routing protocol/ MPLS (LSR)
.HRL (H/W rate limiting), QoSInterface
.960 FE ports, 240 GE ports
.60 POS OC48c ports
.240 T1/E1, 120 T3/E3 ports
.ATM
.WDM/10GbECostSystem  = 120 GbE ports fully configured .< $ 2,000 / GbE portCf) Cisco GSR POS
.$ 29,000 / OC12 (622Mbps)
.$ 97,000 / OC 48  (2.5 Gbps)
54/68
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Netmanias
Riverstone의Optical Ethernet MAN solution
rs3000
Metro Access Platform: RS 3000 (CPE)
Features.8 Gbps nonblocking SF
.9.5 Mpps forwarding rate
.MPLS LER
.HRL (H/W rate limiting), QoS
.NATInterface
.32 E/FE ports (to customers)
.2 expansion module slot-GE (max 70km)-POS, ATM, WDM
.1 Multi-rate WAN module (CSU, DSU내장)Cost: $ 8,995
55/68
1
Netmanias
Riverstone의Optical Ethernet MAN solution
rs3000
RS3000
rs8000
RS8000
rs32000
rs8600
rs32000
rs8600
rs32000
rs8600
RS8600
RS32000
MTU
MTU
ASP network
ISP POP
Metro access
Metro aggregation
ISP
ASP
CSP
Metro Core
Long-haul GE (70Km)/ATM/POS/WDM/T1/T3
32 Ethernet(E/FE)
Ethernet
Long-haul GE (70Km)WDM/10GbE/ATM/POS/TDM
UrbanMedia (09/25/00)
Telseon (09/18/00)
IntelliSpace (09/18/00)
Telseon
56/68
1
Netmanias
Core Technologies
PHY/
MAC
L2/L3/L4
filter
PriorityQueueing (4)
Low
Classification
Port#
DSCP(diffserv)
802.1p
interClass-SPQ-WFQ
WRED
Drop
Pass/
reprioritization
RateLimiting
IP
Lookup
Lookup
table
IP routing/
MPLS
SF
PRL/
ARL/
PFRL
Priority
Queueing (4)
Low
interClass-SPQ-WFQ
WRED
Ingress (Customer)
line card
Egress (MAN)
line card
Wire-Speed Packet ClassificationHardware Rate LimitingeQoS (priority queueing)BillingMPLS
Medium
Medium
High
High
Router
control
traffic
Router
control
traffic
57/68
1
Netmanias
Flow Classification
Control packets
Voice flows
FTP flows
HTTP flows
Classification
(classify flows)
Rate Limiting
(Per-flow RL)
4 priorityqueues
58/68
1
Netmanias
Multi-Field Flow Classification
MAC
IP0800
IPX
8138
RARP
8035
ARP
806
VLAN ID
VLAN Tag
UDP
17
TCP
6
RSVP46
IGMP02
ICMP
1
Telnet
23
HTTP80
FTP20
SMTP
25
DNS53
RTP
5004
8B
6B
6B
4B
2B
.
1B
4B
4B
1B
.
2B
2B
Pre
srcMAC
dst
MAC
Type
CRC
TOS
src
IP
dst
IP
Protocol
ID
src port
number
dst portnumber
Userdata
.
Ethernet
Layer2
IPLayer3/4
TDP/UDPLayer4/7
802.1p/Q
.
.
.
.
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Netmanias
HRL (H/W Rate Limiting)
Physical port speed 100Mbps
Up
5 Mbps
5 Mbps
Down
CustomerA
5 Mbps
15 Mbps
Customer
B
15 Mbps
15 Mbps
CustomerC
MAN port
GbE
PRL (Port Rate Limiting)
Customer에게물리적인port는FE이나GE port를주고customer가사용가능핚BW를임의로조젃해줄수있는기능(H/W: rate limiting기능을H/W로구현함으로써performance degradation이없음을강조)
RS3000
60/68
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Netmanias
HRL (H/W Rate Limiting)
ARL (Aggregate Rate Limiting)
.특정customer로부터온(그customer로갈) aggregate traffic의rate을제핚(보장)
.특정customer의트래픽중특정응용의aggregate traffic의rate을제핚(보장) (예, 회사A로부터유입되는VoIP aggregate traffic= 1Mbps로제핚/보장해줌)
Pre
src
MAC
dstMAC
Type
CRC
TOS
Userdata
Packet Filter
10
Mbps
1Mbps
(PRL)
(ARL)
Traffics from
Medialincs
(순간적으로15Mbps)
Voice aggregate traffic
src port
number
dst port
number
src
IP
dst
IP
ProtocolID
Shaped Traffics fromMedialincs(Total: 10MbpsVoIP: 1Mbps)
61/68
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Netmanias
HRL (H/W Rate Limiting)
얻을수있는효과
Customer별/application별/flow별로BW 핛당및보장과Billing이가능
Asymmetric allocation: Internet access의특성을반영(Up: 1Mbps, Down: 10Mbps)
62/68
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Netmanias
HRL (H/W Rate Limiting)
어떻게구현하나?
.Hardware Credit Bucket Scheme
Credit count: 현재credit의수
Replenish rate (.): credit을refill하는rate
Packet 도착Credit이있으면: Packet pass
Decrease credit count (-1)
없으면: Drop, Reprioritizing (rewrite TOS)
.
.
.
.
Up
Down
Line Card
Key parameters
.: Replenish rate
.: credit pool size
.Riverstone
proprietary algorithm
(not announced)
ATM의UPC개념도입
63/68
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Netmanias
eQoS
PHY/MAC
L2/L3/L4
filter
PriorityQueueing (4)
Low
Classification
Port#
DSCP(diffserv)
802.1p
Drop
Pass/
reprioritization
Rate
Limiting
IP
Lookup
Lookup
table
IP routing/
MPLS
SF
PRL/
ARL/
PFRL
Priority
Queueing (4)
Low
Ingress (Customer)line card
Egress (MAN)
line card
Wire-Speed Packet ClassificationHardware Rate LimitingeQoS (priority queueing)BillingMPLS
Medium
Medium
High
High
Router
control
traffic
Router
control
traffic
interClass
#NAME?
#NAME?
WRED
interClass
#NAME?
#NAME?
WRED
64/68
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Netmanias
MLPS in MAN
rs3000
RS3000
rs8000
RS8000
rs32000
rs8600
rs32000
rs8600
rs32000
rs8600
RS8600
RS32000
MTU
MTU
ASP network
ISP POP
Metro access
Metro aggregation
ISP
ASP
CSP
GE, POS
GE, POS
Ethernet
Ethernet
rs3000
MPLS VPN(VPN ID.LSP)
LSP #3BW: 20MbpsQoS: premium
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
65/68
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Netmanias
Extreme Networks
Extreme’s view: The key remaining link between LAN and WAN .the metropolitan network (MAN)
Current MAN architecture
New convergence
#NAME?
Data
IP
Voice
TDM/SONET
Optic
Data
Voice
Ethernet (GE)
WDM
IP
Circuit.Packet
(BW efficiency
BW flexibility
Transparent Ethernet)
BW multiplier
VoIP
66/68
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Netmanias
Extreme’s MSP solution
Metro
Backbone
Metro
ISP POP
ISP POP
CO
CO
Business
Business
Global Internetor Other ISP
Access
Ring
Metro Core Ring
CWDM
(4.GE)
LX-70 GBIC
(70Km)
MSP’s POP
DC-27RACB
ISP’s ADM
Ethernet Switch (32-64Gbps)
CWDM port (4 .1GE)
LX-70 GBIC (1GE)
POS port
Co-location
Multi-tenant
Building
Business Park
Campus
67/68
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Netmanias
Features of Ethernet switch
Alpine 3803/3804, BlackDiamond 6808, Summit
IP TDM
Bandwidth by the slice
Per-bit billing
Integrated WDM
Virtual MAN
Long-range optics
68/68
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Netmanias
MSP based on Ethernet (ESP)
Telseon (www.telseon.com)
Yipes (www.yipes.com)
Cogent (www.cogentco.com)
Vitts
Intellispace (www.intellispace.com)
Sigma networks (www.sigmanetworks.com)
UrbanMedia (www.urbanmedia.com)
FiberCity (www.fibercitynetworks.com):
Everest BB (www.everestbroadband.com)
FiberNet (www.fiber.net)
Bell Nexxia of Bell Canada
CompleTel Europe
Stream Intelligent Networks
XO communication
ESP/MTU-SP/FLEC/EtherLEC/ELEC
69/68
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Netmanias
ESP Comparison
Service provider
Network
Service
Service BW
And price
BW provisioning
Customer port

Telseon
Not MTU
IP/Ethernet
No SONET
.LAN-to-LAN interconnection
.Internet access
(P-to-p/p-to-mp/mp-to-mp)
Selling point: speed, cost easy of provisioning
.BW:1~100M~(1G)
.Rate-limiting (1Mbps)
.Price
$2,500/100Mbps/Month
.Customer usage based billing
Real-time/web-base/self provisioning
(1) Setup connection
(2) Modify BW
(3) Modify priority
FE(UTP CAT5)

Yipes
MTU
IP/Ethernet
No SONET
.Metro LAN-to-LAN interconnection, 주(Yipes MAN)
.National LAN-to-LAN interconnection (Yipes WAN)
.Internet access, 부(Yipes NET)
Selling point:Instance BW (Fast & Dynamic BW provisioning)
.BW: 1M~1Gbps/tn.
.Rate-limiting (1Mbps)
.Price $1,000/100Mbps/Month
$500/10Mbps/Month
$300/1Mbps/Month
.Customer usage based billing
Real-time/web-base/self provisioning
(1) Setup connection
(2) Modify BW
(3) Modify priority
(현재:call, Q1: web i/f)
100BaseT Cat 5
100BaseFX
1000BaseSX MMF

Cogent
MTU
IP/Ethernet/SONET/DWDM
.Internet access(LAN-to-Internet, 주)
.Private line(LAN-to-LAN, 부)
.BW: 100Mbps/tenant
.Price
$1,000/100Mbps/Month
FE
GBIC(fiber)

Stream
IP/Ethernet
.LAN-to-LAN interconnection
.Internet access
.BW: 1M~1Gbps
.Rate-limiting (1Mbps)
.Customer usage based billing
100M(Cat.5)
1000M(fiber)

70/68
1
Netmanias
ESP Comparison
Service provider
QoS
VPN BW 보장방안
(Metro access/core)
VPN(LAN-to-LAN)설정
Security
restoration
Gear
Partner: Fiber, capacity
Market
Future

Telseon
Not MTU
.Two traffic classes
(1) Standard forwarding(best-effort)
(2) Expedited Data Service (e.g. VoIP)
.802.1/Diffserv
Customer가DSCP marking하고SIU가802.1 priority tagging
.Ingress rate-limiting(SIU)
.Ethernet VPN based-on VLAN
.802.1p/q
.802.1q VLAN
.Gear
Riverstone (SIU, CO)
Foundry BigIron (core)
.Fiber
Metro fiber: Level3,MFN
.20 city
(Dec. 2000)
.MPLS 도입
.OXC/ DWDM 도입

Yipes
MTU
.Support 4 priorities
802.1p ?
Diff-serv ?
Ingress rate limiting ?
.Ethernet VPN based-on VLAN (VMAN:Extreme)
.802.1q VLAN
.Ipsec
99.99% availability
few sec. How?
.Gear
Extreme (summit, BPOP)
Juniper
.Fiber
Metro fiber: MFN
WAN(intercity): Level3, Qwest 용량임대
.20 city
(Dec. 2000)
.17개월소요
.DWDM 도입

Cogent
MTU
.eliminates QoS issues with its network design
No QoS/MPLS/Dif-serv
No oversubscription
(2.5Gbps 용량으로100Mbps company를25개맊받음.
layer 3 Protection
.Gear (Cisco)
2948G L3, ONS15454 (BPOP), GSR12016 (MPOP)
.Fiber
Metro: MFN기존인입fiber 임대
WAN(intercity): fiber~Williams, long-haul DWDM젂송~자체구축
.20 city
(Dec. 2000)

Stream
MTU/
single
.802.1p / Diff-serv
.Ingress rate limiting
.Ethernet VPN based-on VLAN super aggregation (Foundry)
.16million VLAN정의가능
.802.1q VLAN
.Access control list
.MPLS VPN 도입
.STP
.MPLS 도입(self-healing)
.Gear
Foundry NetIron
.Fiber
.MPLS 도입(self-healing, TE)

71/68
1
Netmanias
ESP Comparison
Service provider
Service
Gear
Partner: Fiber, capacity

Vitts

Intellispace
(BLEC: MTU)
.Internet access, VPN, Web hosting
.64K-1Gbps/Variable rate/Self-provisioning
Extreme
Riverstone
MFN, GlobalCrossing

Sigma networks

UrbanMedia
(MTU)
.Targeted customers: multitenant office building
.Provide both TDM and internet services
.100 Mbps Ethernet-based IP connections to the tenant\'s
LAN Hub
Riverstone

FiberCity
(MTU)
.100Mbps Internet access: $765/100Mbps/Month
.Other service: Private LAN interconnection, SAN, server hosting, streaming and multicast Video
.MAN: L2 operation rather than L3 (Spanning Tree)
Cisco
Metro: MFN
WAN: interCity LAN-to-LAN서비스위해third party long-haul provider BW 협상중

Everest BB(BLEC)
.Metro Ethernet service
Metro: MFN

FiberNet

Bell Nexxia of Bell Canada

CompleTel Europe

XO communication
EtherLEC
Ciena DWDM

Allied Riser(BLEC)
512K .100M

Dreamline
2001년metro Ethernet Service: NGIP

GNG Networks
2001년metro Ethernet Service: GNG Matrix

72/68
1
Netmanias
Telseon
Telseon
GbE/10GbE MAN
Co-location
ASP
CSP
office building 3
office building 3
DC-27RACB
Enterprise
Enterprise
office building 6
office building 6
office building 6
ISP
Target
B2B : enterprise private network, communication with business partner
B2SP: Application service provider, Internet service provider, Data backup service provider
73/68
1
Netmanias
Telseon
Telseon의주장
WAN: long-haul high-speed IP-based backbone ~ link=2.5G/10G/40G, Router=GSR/TSR, Optical=OS/OXC=Tbps (Qwest, Level3, Williams,…) .Fast !
LAN: Gigabit Ethernet ~ Full duplex, L2/3 switch .Fast !
MAN, where LANs and long-haul backbone networks converge.
Comparatively slow speed, inflexible, and high cost current SONET TDM based MAN has been a bottleneck !
74/68
1
Netmanias
Telseon says, the problems of SONET TDM based MAN are ….
LAN과new BB WAN에비해서느리다
DS0(64Kbps)-T1(1.544Mbps)-T3(45Mbps)-OC3(155Mbps)
Expensive: T1/$1,500/month
SONET TDM is Circuit-switching (사용에무관히고액의정액요금)
SONET 장비(ADM, DCS)가비싸다.
BW provisioning
takes weeks, often months (새로운링크제공, 또는기존고객의링크에BW추가시에)
Manually provisioning, not dynamically provisioning
75/68
1
Netmanias
Telseon’s Solution
LogicalWire IP service
MAN Infra: Ethernet + Fiber Optics
Tunneling (Connection over Ethernet networks): VLAN, MPLS
Logical wire connection
Point-to-point connection
Point-to-Multipoint connection
Multipoint-to-multipoint connection
{connection type, CoS and BW profile}
Service BW: 1M ~ 100Mbps, ++1Mbps
$2,500 / 100Mbps / month
DS-3 configuration from a ILEC or a CLEC in a metro = $5,000/month)
Customer-controlled Provisioning
76/68
1
Netmanias
Telseon’s Network
Metro
Backbone
Metro
ISP POP
ISP POP
CO
CO
Business
Business
Global Internetor Other ISP
router
router
router
router
router
router
L3 SW orRouter
SIU
AccessSwitch
CoreSwitch
Fiber or DWDM
Customer
Brows
Provisioning
& Reports Server
To the Internet(Verio)
CO
CO
POP
CP
Metro access
Metro Core
Ethernet switch
(Riverstone, Foundry)
10/100(/1G)
Fully-meshed Layer 3 switch, interconnected via CWDM equipment
Dark fiber
of Level3
DC-27RACB
Co-locationASPdatabackup
1GSMF/MMF
77/68
1
Netmanias
Service Interface Unit (SIU)
Functions of SIU1.Traffic shaping and policing: customer의트래픽이계약핚data rate(현재1Mpbs-100Mbps 가능)을준수하도록강요
2.Security: 모든프레임의{source Router MAC addr, destination Router MAC addr}를필터링하여authorized S/D pair인경우에맊access switch로젂달하고그렇지않은경우폐기(leak proof)
3.Traffic prioritization: SIU maps from IP-based DiffServ CoS packet markings to 802.1p priority tagging {현재2 class 지원: Standard forwarding(best-effort), Expedited Data service(e.g, VoIP traffic)}
4.Fault tolerance:핚SIU가두개이상의Access switch로링크를설정핚다.
router
Router,
Layer-3 switch,
or Host
Service
Interface Unit
1G
SMF/MMF
10M/100M
(/1G)
Category 5 UPT cabling
AccessSwitch
CP
CPE, Telseon installs and manages
78/68
1
Netmanias
Ethernet Connection
router
router
router
router
Customer
Brows
Provisioning& Reports Server
To the Internet
CO
POP
CP
현재, Ethernet VLAN technology를이용하여Ethernet Connection을제공해줌.
router
Company A가Point-to-point conenction (Ethernet  젂용회선) 두개를설정하고싶다.1)지사또는파트너사와연결용
2)인터넷액세스용
VLAN 10
VLAN 11
Company A
Company A의지사또는파트너사
79/68
1
Netmanias
Ethernet Connection
router
router
router
router
CustomerBrows
Provisioning
& Reports Server
To the Internet
CO
POP
CP
MPLS를적용하여LSP를SIU간에설정해줌으로서MPLS VPN (MPLS 젂용회선)구현예정
router
VLAN의확장성문제, QoS제공의핚계, Traffic Engineering안됨
LSP#3BW: 20MbpsQoS: Best Effort
LSP #5
BW: 30Mbps
QoS: Premium
Company A
Company A의지사또는파트너사
80/68
1
Netmanias
Telseon 망진화계획
router
router
Router
SIU
AS
CS
CS
AS
SIU
Router
Enterprise or
Service Provider
Enterprise orService Provider
Telseon MAN
router
router
router
router
현재) Pure L2 Ethernet Flat Network: Ethernet L2 VPN, 802.1 priority
2001) MPLS over Ethernet: MPLS VPN, Traffic Engineering, MPLS QoS
Optical Core Network: Optical Switching, MP.S
OXC/DWDM
LER
LSR
LSR
LSR
LSR
LER
LER
LER
LSR
LSR
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
CWDM
CWDM
81/68
1
Netmanias
Yipes
MegaPOP
GigaPOP
Metro/Regional
Ring
Local access ring
(city street)
Level3
Qwest
UUNET
PSTN
GigaPOP
MegaPOP
Metro/Regional
Ring
Local access ring
(city street)
MTU
Metro
Backbone
Metro
ISP POP
ISP POP
CO
CO
Business
Business
Global Internetor Other ISP
82/68
1
Netmanias
Yipes Service
Fiber
IP
GbE
Yipes delivers both Business-to-Business and Business-to-Internet IP networking services.
ATM
SONET
IP
Fiber
yipes
83/68
1
Netmanias
Why so cheap ?
망구축및운영비용
cost
refer
84/68
1
Netmanias
Conclusion (1)
Network Trends: LAN/WAN .MAN (current networking bottleneck ~ sipping straw)
Current MAN: TDM-based SONET/SDH
Alternatives to TDM/SONET: ATM Ring, MSPP, DPT, GE
GbE solution = GbE + VLAN + MPLS + 10GbE + CWDM + DWDM + RPR
Low-cost network infrastructure  
High BW to customer
Low price to customer
Carrier class reliability
Carrier class availability(99.999%)
Carrier class restoration (<50msec)
CoS/QoS
Rate-limiting
real-time BW provisioning
Usage Based Billing
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
Enterprise
Metro
Global Internet or Other ISP
New Startup, Fiber-rich, Data-Oriented Service Provider에최적
Enterprise
Metro  POP
Metro  POP
85/68
1
Netmanias
Conclusion (2)
Metro
Backbone
Metro
CO
CO
Business
Residential
Residential
Business
ani-car
ani-car
ani-car
wider
wider
wider
Only Ethernet solve this problem ?
Reference: www.netmanias.com
gojuall_258_m
gojuall_258_m
Metro  POP
Metro  POP
86/68
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