| 리포트 | 기술문서 | 테크-블로그 | 글로벌 블로그 | 원샷 갤러리 | 통신 방송 통계  | 한국 ICT 기업 총람 |

제품 검색

| 네트워크/통신 뉴스 | 기술자료실 | 자유게시판 |  
 
 
섹션 5G 4G LTE C-RAN/Fronthaul Gigabit Internet IPTV/UHD IoT SDN/NFV Wi-Fi Video Streaming KT SK Telecom LG U+ OTT Network Protocol CDN YouTube Data Center
 
스폰서채널 |

 

  스폰서채널 서비스란?
Tutorial: Multicast in MPLS/VPLS Networks
February 10, 2008 | By Juniper
코멘트 (0)
6

Thank you for visiting Netmanias! Please leave your comment if you have a question or suggestion.
Transcript
IP/MPLS Forum Interworking IP/MPLS Forum Board of Directors,
& Frame Relay WG Chair Director, Mobile/FMC Solutions and
Director of Technology & Partnerships, Juniper NetworksStandards, IP Division
Alcatel-Lucent
Agenda
1 Introduction to the IP/MPLS Forum
2 MPLS in the RAN Backhaul

Issues, trends, and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolvingRAN backhaul architectures
3 MPLS Basics

MPLS fit and operation in the mobile RAN network and the support of
end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features
4 MPLS Pseudowires

The latest Pseudowire (PWE3) enablers for legacy network migration(TDM and ATM) and their operation over IP/MPLS RAN backhaul
networks
5 MPLS OAM and Protection

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities ofIP/MPLS RAN backhaul networks
6 Packet Synchronization and Timing
7 MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative  MMBI
8 IP/MPLS in the RAN
Slide
2
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
Introduction to the IP/MPLS Forum

IP/MPLS Forum is an international, industry-wide, non-profitassociation of service providers, equipment vendors, testingcenters and enterprise users

Created with the name change of the MFA Forum (Oct 2007)
to reflect renewed focus on driving global industry adoptionof IP/MPLS solutions in the market, by focusing onstandards initiatives for IP/MPLS such as inter carrier
interconnect (ICI), mobile wireless backhaul, and security

Objectives: Unify service providers, suppliers and end users on
common vision of IP/MPLS based solutions
Awareness
Migration Systems-Level Solutions

Promote global awareness of  Guide the telecom end  Drive implementation of
the benefits of IP/MPLS user to make the leap standards for IP/MPLS based

Empower the telecom industry from legacy solutions
to migrate from legacy technologies to  Validate implementations andtechnologies to IP/MPLS-based IP/MPLS-based services advance interoperability of
next generation networking standardized IP/MPLS based
solutions

Deliverables: Technical Specifications, Test Plans, Technical
Tutorials, Collateral
Slide
3
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS Forum2008 IP/MPLS Forum
Introduction to the MPLS Forum

Current Work Items  
IP/MPLS Wireless Backhaul network architectures
Wireless evolution pushes IP/MPLS technology out to base stations, LTE, etc

MPLS InterCarrier Interconnect

Packet Based GMPLS Client to Network Interconnect

Generic Connection Admission Control (GCAC) Requirements for IP/MPLS
Networks

BGP Controlled L2 VPNs Technical Tutorials

MPLS Over Aggregated Interface  Introduction to MPLS
½
and full day
MPLS L2/L3 VPNs
½ day

Voice Trunking format over MPLS
MPLS VPN Security ½ day

TDM Transport over MPLS using AAL1  Traffic Engineering ½ day
The Forum is also planning several  GMPLS
½ day
industry-driven future Work Items
Migrating Legacy Services to MPLS ½ day
MPLS OAM
½ day
Service Provider Council
Voice over MPLS
½ day
Public Interoperability Events
Multi-service Interworking over MPLS ½ day
Multicast in MPLS/VPLS Networks ½ day
Technical Tutorials -to broaden
IP/MPLS in the Mobile RAN
½
day
the understanding of the technology and New tutorials based upon demand
benefits of the solutions
Next meeting: February 25-28, Orlando, Florida
Please join us!

To join the Forum contact Alexa Morris, Executive Director
E-Mail: amorris@ipmplsforumorg Phone: 510 608-5914
Agenda
1 Introduction to the IP/MPLS Forum
2 MPLS in the RAN Backhaul

Issues, trends, and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving RANbackhaul architectures
3 MPLS Basics

MPLS fit and operation in the mobile RAN network and the support of
end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features
4 MPLS Pseudowires

The latest Pseudowire (PWE3) enablers for legacy network migration(TDM and ATM) and their operation over IP/MPLS RAN backhaul
networks
5 MPLS OAM and Protection

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities ofIP/MPLS RAN backhaul networks
6 Packet Synchronization and Timing
7 MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative  MMBI
8 IP/MPLS in the RAN
Slide 5
Wireless Network Framework
Air Interface Advancements:
Air Interface Advancements:Air Interface Advancements:
Base
Increased Data Rates
Increased Data RatesIncreased Data RatesIMS
Station Walled
Content/AppsBSC
Packet Core
IP/MPLS Backhaul
BTS
New applications
New applicationsNew applicationsInternet
Tomorrow:
Evolving towards IMS
Evolving towards IMSEvolving towards IMS
Today: Narrowband (T1/E1)
Today: Narrowband (T1/E1)Today: Narrowband (T1/E1)
All IP
Air
Interface
BTS BSC Today
Circuit
Switched RAN
Circuit Core PSTN
Richer Applications
Richer ApplicationsRicher Applications
I
Increased Memory
ncreased Memoryncreased Memory
Circuit Switched Voice
Ubiquitous device Evolving towards VoIP
Ubiquitous deviceUbiquitous deviceEvolving towards VoIPEvolving towards VoIPCDMA
I  Increased Processing
ncreased Processingncreased ProcessingCircuit Switched Voice
Terminology WCDMA/UMTS
2000/1x
Base Station Node-B BTS Technology Data Services
Base Station Controller RNC BSC GSM/UMTS EDGE, GPRS
Circuit Edge devices MSC MSC CDMA CDMA2000, 1xRTT,
Packet Edge devices SGSN, GGSN PDSN EV-DO
Mobile Network  End-to-End View
Backhaul Transport &
Transport network &
Mobile Core Network
RAN
Internet
2 G
3 G 3G PDSN/
SGSN
Access
Network Aggregation
RNC
Core
PSN
Network Network
GGSN
3G MSCBSC
IP/MPLS Forum
2G SGSN
#NAME?
for backhaul
2G MSC
Access
Network
RAN
Defining Mobile backhaul network :
Network that connects cell sites with regional mobile hub/controller sites
(eg network that connects Base Stations/Node Bs to BSC/RNC)
Fundamental Problems Drive
Mobile Backhaul Transformation
Compelling events are driving backhaul transformation
Compelling events are driving backhaul transformationCompelling events are driving backhaul transformation
Traffic growth
Introduction of IP
and new service
base stations
Diversity in introduction
Need for
network
service
infrastructure
assurance
Scaleable
Bandwidth
at lower cost
per bit
Evolution paths
for CDMA
and
GSM/UMTS
Efficient
migration
from TDM
to packet
Strict SLAs
backed by
differential
IP QoS
Improved
operational
management and
accuracy
Direct implicationsDirect implicationsfor the network architecturefor the network architecture
RAN Backhaul Business Drivers
Mobile Operators spend ~30% of total OPEX ontransport services* 9
$22B globally
Access Bandwidth Growth ( EV-DO, HSPA, LTE…
9
2G operators require 1 or 2 T1/E1 (leased) per base station
9
3G -incremental of 2 to 4 T1/E1s per base station (Data Driven)
9
200400% increase in required backhaul and associated OpEX
RAN is increasingly becoming a strategic asset9
Area of major investment for operator
9
Lease vs Own
Mobile backhaul requires diverse and co-existenttechnologies
9
2G (TDM), 3G (ATM in UMTS), 4G (IP/Ethernet in LTE/UMB)
9
Large number of 2G and 3G cell sites are collocated
Provisioning/planning needs to be simplified
RAN sharing with other operators
9
Avoid truck rolls
9
Need a way to separate/secure traffic and maintain SLAs
*Source: Yankee Group
Technologies for RAN Backhaul

Adoption of Ethernet as a
backhaul technology
doubles to 2008

Operators migrating RANs
to converged, packet-
based architectures

Microwave used
extensively in Europe and
Asia
Multiple options for
backhaul transport

Varies based on geography,
availability, volume, inter/
intra carrier relationships
Technologies/Methods
PDH T1/E1/J1
Ethernet
Microwave
ATM
SONET/SDH
WiMAX
DSL
PON
Satellite
Coax cable
Wireless Mesh
80%
80%
75%
30%
70%
60%
65%
60%
40%
50%
25%
50%
20%
30%
15%
30%
15%
15%
10%
15%
2008
0%
2007
0%
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
Percent of Respondents
Source: Infonetics
Mobile Transport Architecture
Many RAN access / aggregation transport options
New IP Services (Video, VoIP, IMS) are QoS sensitive and Bandwidth intensive
IP/MPLS Packet Backbone capabilities move to the RAN
3
HUB
12
(CELL) SITE
MTSO
BACKBONE
IP Services:
VoiP, IP Video,
IMS Services
IP and Ethernet
Backhaul over
many transports
BTS
Backhaul
Networks
Converged IP/MPLS
Backbone
IMS
Services
PSTN
MTSO
MTSO
Ethernet /
MPLS
Optical
Microwave
Hub/Large
Cell Site
Aggregation
Aggregation
Service
Router
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS Access
converges on IP,
MPLS, and Ethernet
Packet based backhaul aims to
solve the RAN requirements

Help to cut down OPEX:  
Cost drivers are similar to ‘Core”

Extend IP/MPLS towards backhaul

Supporting Bandwidth Growth

N*T1 vs Ethernet interface

RAN is increasingly becoming a strategic asset

Lease vs Own

Discussion around future proofing investment

Backhaul requires diverse and co-existent
technologies

Pseudowires facilitates co-existence of legacy
technologies

Migration to converged network

Provisioning/planning needs to be simplified

MPLS Plug N play, Advanced OAM, Troubleshooting
IP/MPLS
Why MPLS?
MPLS is THE unifying technology for various backhaultypes
MPLS is proven in Service Provider deployments globally
it delivers on its promises
MPLS adds carrier-grade capabilities

Scalability -millions of users/end points

Resiliency -high availability including rapid restoration

Manageability  ease of troubleshooting & provisioning

Traffic Engineering plus QoS  predictable network behavior

Multiservice  support for 2G, 3G ATM and IP RAN

Traffic isolation  VPNs to ensure separation of OAM from signalling / bearer
planes, partitioning of multi-operator traffic
MPLS pseudowires

Support transport of traffic from a range of interface types including TDM,
ATM, MLPPP, HDLC and Ethernet

Allows legacy RAN equipment to continue to be utilized (CAPEX protection)
while leveraging the advantages of new packet transport options
Why MPLS for Mobile Backhaul

MPLS is a proven and mature technology based on an approved set
of standards

IP/MPLS is already deployed and enables service optimization (ie
Layer 2/3 VPNs) for routed networks

MPLS Pseudowires support transport of traffic from a range of
interface types including TDM, ATM, MLPPP/HDLC, and Ethernet

MPLS offers both Control Plane-based and static Provisioning
alternatives

Leverage MPLS TE capabilities for better management of network
resources in the transport network, increasing the ROI of the
operator

Leverage a range of underlying transport infrastructures, including
SDH/SONET and switched Ethernet using MPLS to provide transport
services to the mobile backhaul network
Multi-phase IP/MPLS migrationinto RAN Transport
IP/MPLS BackboneRadio Access Network
MTSOHubCell Site
Converged
IP/MPLS
Backbone2G  TDM/IP
3G  ATM/IP
Aggregation
via
SDH/SONET
Phase 1
WiMAX -Enet
ATM
Aggregation
Overlay
ATM
T1/E1
Copper
PPP
T1/E1
Copper
TDM PPP TDM/IP ATM/IP Enet
SDH/SONET
Fiber
MPLS “edge”
TDM
T1/E1
Copper
ATM Enet
TDM PPPATM Enet
μwave (SDH ch)
Central Aggregation,
Consolidation,
Service Routing
Separate transmission
facilities for different
technologies
Enet
Fiber
Enet/PPP
T1/E1
Copper BSC RNC WAC
TDM ATM PPP Enet
μwave (PDH channels)
Multi-phase IP/MPLS migrationinto RAN Transport
Phase 2
Radio Access Network IP/MPLS Backbone
HubCell Site
2G  TDM/IP
3G  ATM/IP
WiMAX -Enet
MPLS
Aggregation
for all
Technologies
MPLS
Ethernet ch
μwave
MPLS
Ethernet
fiber
MPLS “edge”
MTSO
TDM/IP ATM/IP Enet
BSC RNC WAC
MPLS
SDH/SONET
fiber
Common facility for
all traffic
TDM PPPATM
ATM
T1/E1
Copper
PPP
T1/E1
Copper
TDM ATM PPP Enet
μwave (PDH channels)
Separate transmission
facilities for different
technologies
TDM
T1/E1
Copper
Enet/PPP
T1/E1
Copper
Enet
TDM PPPATM Enet
TDM PPPATM Enet
Central Aggregation,
Consolidation,
Service Routing
Slide 17
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
Backbone
Converged
IP/MPLS
Multi-phase IP/MPLS migrationinto RAN Transport
Phase 3
Radio Access Network IP/MPLS Backbone
HubCell Site
2G  TDM/IP
3G  ATM/IP
WiMAX -Enet
MPLS “edge”
MTSO
Converged
IP/MPLS
Backbone
TDM/IP ATM/IP Enet
BSC RNC WAC
Router
TDM ATM
MPLS
Ethernet ch
μwave
Enet
TDM ATM
MPLS
Ethernet
fiber
Enet
TDM ATM
MPLS
SDH/SONET
fiber
Enet
Common facility for
all traffic
TDM
MPLS
Ethernet ch
μwave
Enet
TDM
MPLS
Ethernet
fiber
Enet
TDM
MPLS
SDH/SONET
fiber
Enet
Common facility for
all traffic
IP
IP
ATM
ATM
IPATM
MPLS
Aggregation
for all
Technologies
MPLS
Aggregation
for all
Technologies
IP/MPLS is agnostic to transmission techniques in Access
What is MMBI ?

MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Initiative  
Work item embraced by IP/MPLS Forum

Defining role IP/MPLS technologies in Mobile backhaul
(including WiMAX)

IP/MPLS Forum launched the industry wide initiative in
2Q 2007

Press Release at:
http://wwwipmplsforumorg/pressroom/MFA_Forum_mobile_bac
khaul_PRfinalpdf
MPLS has been globally deployed in wireline, wireless and convergedcore networks
Proven benefits of MPLS can be leveraged by extending it from backboneto backhaul
What MMBI aims to solve/
facilitate ?

Faster mobile broadband deployment  
HSPA/HSPA+/LTE, EV-DO/UMB, WiMAX

Enhanced experience for mobile users with new data
services and application, along with voice

Location based service, VoIP, gaming, etc

Future-proof investments

Improve mobile operator’s bottom line and simplify
operations

Converging technology specific backhaul networks to single
multi-service packet infrastructure

Based on proven benefits of IP/MPLS while leveraging cost-
benefits of Ethernet
Agenda
1 Introduction to the IP/MPLS
2 MPLS in the RAN Backhaul

Issues, trends, and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving RANbackhaul architectures
3 MPLS Basics

MPLS fit and operation in the mobile RAN network and the support of
end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features
4 MPLS Pseudowires

The latest Pseudowire (PWE3) enablers for legacy network migration(TDM and ATM) and their operation over IP/MPLS RAN backhaul
networks
5 MPLS OAM

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities ofIP/MPLS RAN backhaul networks
6 Packet Synchronization and Timing
7 MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative  MMBI
8 IP/MPLS in the RAN
Slide 21
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
Section -3 Agenda
MPLS Basics
MPLS Architecture
MPLS terminology and operation
Resiliency and Protection
0825-0840

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a network
technology that enables network operators to implementa variety of advanced network features, both to servetheir customers and to enhance their own network
utilization

These features are a result of the transformation of the
connectionless per-hop behavior of an Internet Protocol(IP) network into a connection-oriented forwarding alongMPLS Label Switched Paths (LSP)

MPLS operates over enhanced IP routers, usingenhanced IP protocols and leveraging IP OperationsAdministration and Management (OAM) systems Thus,
MPLS can be viewed as an extension of IP, rather than its
replacement

MPLS works with both IPv4 and IPv6, it is complementaryto IPv6 and can facilitate the IPv6 transition
MPLS Definition

Concept of “Label Switching” has been with the
industry for over 20 years

Operation: add an independent “label” to user’s
packets and use this label to forward the packetsthrough the network

Primary advantages of labels in initial schemes:

Label can be precisely controlled

Hardware and software can be optimized around the
Label-Switching and MPLS
label

Examples of a label-switching technique inconnection-oriented services: ATM, Frame Relay

MPLS is also a “labeling scheme” but the principaldifference is that MPLS uses the same routing andend-point addressing schemes as IP

Network Engineering  
Put the bandwidth where the traffic is
Physical cable deployment
Virtual connection provisioning

Traffic Engineering

Put the traffic where the bandwidth is
On-line or off-line optimisation of routes
Ability to diversify routes
Network Engineering vs
Traffic Engineering
MPLS Basics
MPLS Architecture
MPLS terminology and operation
Resiliency and Protection
Section  3 Agenda
1100-1130

Data Plane carries user information

Control Plane creates the paths over which the Data Plane
operates

IP:

Data Plane: routing table lookup for egress interface

Control Plane: routing protocols

ATM:

Data Plane: ATM header lookup

Control Plane: PNNI

MPLS:

Data Plane: label pushing, swapping and popping

Control Plane:
Extended routing protocols (eg, ISIS-TE)
Label distribution protocols (eg, RSVP-TE)
Discovery protocols (eg, BGP)
Data Plane vs Control Plane
LSP is the path followed by labelled packets that are assigned to
the same FEC
Label Switched Path (LSP)
LSP
IP source
network
IP destination
network
MPLS
network
FEC is Forwarding Equivalence Class
This class is formed based on the equivalence in forwarding, ie,
“forwarding equivalence” FEC-to-label binding mechanism
Flow (stream, traffic trunk) of IP packets  forwarded over same LSP
FEC-to-label binding mechanism binding is done once, at the ingress
Slide 28
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
MPLS Header
TTLLabel (20-bits) CoS S
IP Packet (header + Data)IP Packet (header + Data)
3232--bitsbitsL2 HeaderL2 HeaderMPLS HeaderMPLS Header
Fields
Label
short, fixed-length packet identifier
unstructured
link-local significance
Experimental (CoS)
Stacking bit
Time to live
IP packet is encapsulated by ingress LSR
IP packet is de-encapsulated by egress LSR
Label stacking” means shim header stacking

Lower Layers  
Partial or full mesh

Automatic Protection Switching strategies of SONET/SDH

MPLS Layer

Outage
Protection and Re-routing procedures

Administrative

Re-optimization and Preemption

IP Layer

IGP convergence algorithms
Providing Resiliency with MPLS
IGP: Internal gateway protocol
Carrier-Grade IP/MPLS Protection

Restoration time

Recovery times smaller than IGP convergence times 50ms fail-over possible

Failover transparent to edge service protection mechanisms

Resource efficiency

Leverages statistical gains over use of optical or SDH/SONET layers

Service differentiation

MPLS enables granular levels of protection This helps service differentiation
(QoS, protection)

Node protection

Service awareness assist in node protection or protection of layer 2 traffic

Robustness

Route pinning avoids transient LSP behavior when SPF routing changes
Interoperability

MPLS provides standardized protection in multi-vendor environments

RFC 4090: FRR extensions to RSVP
Slide 31
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
Carrier-Grade IP/MPLS Services:
Fast Reconvergence
A ‘trigger’ is required to activate MPLS protection
(eg bypass tunnel)

OAM or LOS for SDH/SONET, LOS or RDI for Ethernet
Where appropriate (ie Ethernet over SDH), consider
the capabilities of the underlying transmission system

Upon failure of SDH path, shutdown client laser (Gigabit Ethernet)
or generate special 8B/6T code signal onto segment (Fast
Ethernet)

Ensure that failure of local Ethernet segment is propagated to
distant end to avoid bi-directional failures

When no other trigger is available, use

BFD

8023ah EFM
Fast change propagation requires optimization of the
IGP protocols

ms IGP timers
MPLS Tunnel Protection:
Fast Reroute
Ingress
LER
Egress
LER
Main LSP
Bypass LSPs

Create a bypass LSP around each component of theprimary LSP

In an outage, the LSR adjacent to the failure uses‘label stacking’ to redirect the primary LSP to thebypass LSP

At the penultimate hop of the bypass the top label for
the bypass LSP is popped

Effectively, the bypass merges into the primary LSP
MPLS Protection of the outer tunnel

RSVP-TE Path Protection

Hot or cold standby; disjoint primary/backup

Restoration depends on the network size, fault propagation delay (~100
msec range)

Protected path relies on CSPF
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS Forum2008 IP/MPLS ForumSlide 34
BSC
MPLS RAN
HubCell Site
2G
3G
WiMax TDM
ATM IMA
Ethernet
Protected LSP
Backup LSP
RNC
MPLS Protection of the outer tunnel
RSVP-TE Fast Reroute for Local Protection

NNHOP bypass tunnels backup LSPs passing through bypassed segment

Facility: 1:n protection or Detour: 1:1 protection

Link and node protection; sub 50 msec recovery

Protected path relies on CSPF
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS Forum2008 IP/MPLS ForumSlide 35
MPLS RAN
HubCell Site
2G
3G
WiMax TDM
ATM IMA
Ethernet
Protected LSPs
Bypass LSP
BSC
RNC
Agenda
1 Introduction to the IP/MPLS
2 MPLS in the RAN Backhaul

Issues, trends, and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving RANbackhaul architectures
3 MPLS Basics

MPLS fit and operation in the mobile RAN network and the support of
end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features
4 MPLS Pseudowires

The latest Pseudowire (PWE3) enablers for legacy network migration(TDM and ATM) and their operation over IP/MPLS RAN backhaul
networks
5 MPLS OAM

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities ofIP/MPLS RAN backhaul networks
6 Packet Synchronization and Timing
7 MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative  MMBI
8 IP/MPLS in the RAN
Slide 36
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
What is PWE3?
PWE3  “Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge”
Working Group assigned to study carriage of“Legacy and New Services” over MPLS
Protocol encapsulations can be carried over
MPLS

Legacy Services under consideration are:
FR, ATM, SONET & SDH, DS0, DS1, DS3, …

And new services such as:
Ethernet, VLANs, etc
MPLS Pseudowire
Reference Model
Native Emulated Service
AC
PE1IP/MPLS Network PE2
AC
Pseudowire (PW) (forward)
MPLS Tunnel LSP (forward)
CE1
MPLS Tunnel LSP (backward)
Pseudowire (backward)
ATM, Ethernet , FR, IP, TDM, etc
CE2
Attachment Circuit (AC)
AC: Attachment Circuit
#NAME?
CE: Customer Edge
PE: Provider Edge
MPLS Point-to-Point Services
Label Stacking
THunnel
eader
PW
Header
VC Encaps
Information Layer 2 payload
1
23

Three Layers of Encapsulation
1) Tunnel Header: Contains information needed to
transport the PDU across the IP or MPLS network
2) Pseudowire Header (PW): Used to distinguish individual
emulated VCs within a single tunnel
3) Emulated VC Encapsulation: Contains the information
about the enclosed PDU (known as Control Word)

Tunnel Header determines path through network

Pseudowire Header identifies VLAN, VPN, or
connection at the end point

All services look like a Virtual Circuit to MPLS
network
Layer 2 Encapsulation PWE3
3G R99/R3 UMTS
ATM cell and ATM AAL5
RFC 4717
2G
TDM
RFC 4553
3G to 4G
Ethernet / 8021q VLAN
RFC 4448
CDMA
PPP/HDLC
RFC 4618
Structure-aware TDM Circuit Emulation (CESoPSN)
Draft-ieft-pwe3-cesopsn-07txt
ATM Service Transport with a PW
Reference Model
Native Emulated ATM Service
Pseudowire (PW) (forward)
PE2MPLS Tunnel LSP (forward)
MPLS Tunnel LSP (backward)
PE1IP/MPLS Network
ATM Service
UNI or NNI
ATM Service
UNI or NNI
BTS
2G
Pseudowire (backward)
AC
2G-3G
BSC/RNC
Complex
ATM Cell Mode Encapsulationfor Transport over MPLS
4 octets 4 octets 4 octets 52 octets 52 octets
Tunnel
Header
PW
Header
Control
word
ATM cell #1
minus FCS
ATM cell #2
minus FCS …
0000 Flags Res
bits 4 4 4 6 16
Length Sequence Number
Control Word
N-to-One Cell Mode Multiple Cell Encapsulation

2 modes:

One-to-One Cell Mode -maps
one ATM VCC (or VPC) to one PW

N-to-One Cell Mode -maps one or
more ATM VCCs (or VPCs) to one
PW (shown above); only required
mode for ATM support

Ingress performs no reassembly

Control word is optional: If used, Flag and Length bits are notused
Control Word (optional)
VPI VCI PTI C
ATM Payload (48 bytes)
“ “
VPI VCI PTI C
ATM Payload (48 bytes)
“ “
RFC 4717
Structure-Agnostic TDM Encapsulation
for Transport over MPLS (SAToP)
4 octets 4 octets 4 octets
Tunnel
Header
PW
Header
Control
Word Fixed RTP Header*
0000 L R RSV
bits 4 1 2
Length
6
Sequence Number
161 * Optional see RFC 35502
FRG
TDM Payload
SAToP Control Word

Structure agnostic transport for TDM (T1, E1, T3 and E3) bit streams

Ignores structure imposed by standard TDM framing

Used in applications where PEs do not need to interpret TDM data or
participate in TDM signaling

SAToP Control Word allows:

Detection of packet loss or mis-ordering

Differentiation between MPLS and AC problems as causes for emulated
service outages

Conservation of MPLS network bandwidth by not transferring invalidata (AIS)

Signaling of faults detected at PW egress to the PW ingress

SAToP Control word includes:

L = Indicates TDM payload is invalid due to an attachment circuit fault (May omit payload toconserve MPLS bandwidth)

R = Set by MPLS-bound IWF to indicate local CE-bound IWF is in packet loss state (ie, has losta pre-configured number of consecutive packets)

RSV and FRG = Set to 0 by MPLS bound IWF and ignored by CE bound IWF
RFC 4553
Slide 43
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
MPLS Pseudowires for Backhaul
Pseudowires

Emulate a native layer 2 service, such as TDM, ATM VC/VP, FR VC, Ethernet, etc
Many PWs carried across MPLS network in a tunnel LSP

PWs can utilise features of the MPLS network for resiliency, QoS, etc
Outer Label
Pseudowire
Cell-site
PE
MTSO
PE
L2 AC
L2 AC
Tunnel LSP
Inner Label
BTS
2G
WiMax
Other
Licensed/
Unlicensed
Radio Access
Node B
3G
MPLS RAN
Slide 44
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
PW frame
payload
(L2 protocol)
PW Label
T-LSP Label
MPLS Label Stack
PWE3 at the Cell Site

ATM/TDM/Ethernet MPLS PWE3 from cell Site to MTSO

PW switching at hub site can be considered to groom into a reduced
set of LSPs trunks

Dynamic MPLS end-to-end or Static-to-Dynamic PW switching

Service classification reflected into EXP bits of LSP trunk
Cell Site Hub
BSC
RNC
MPLS RAN
PWE3
2G
3G
WiMax TDM
ATM IMA
HDLC
Ethernet
Slide 45
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
Multi-Segment PW for Backhaul

draft-ietf-pwe3-ms-pw-requirements and draft-ietf-pwe3-ms-pw-arch:

A static or dynamically configured set of two or more contiguous PW segments that behave
and function as a single point-to-point PW

Scalability  to hundreds of base stations connecting to RNC/BSC site

Multi-domain operation  including multi-provider backhaul networks

Multi-technology operation  leverage mechanisms from non-MPLS access infrastructures
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS Forum2008 IP/MPLS ForumSlide 46
BTS
2G
WiMAX
Other
Licensed/
Unlicensed
Radio Access
Node B
3G
Pseudowires
S-PE T-PETunnel LSP
MPLS AggregationMPLS
Access
Hub
Cell Site
MTSO
T-PE
TDM, ATM, Ethernet PW Tunnel
Agenda
1 Introduction to the IP/MPLS
2 MPLS in the RAN Backhaul

Issues, trends, and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving RANbackhaul architectures
3 MPLS Basics

MPLS fit and operation in the mobile RAN network and the support of
end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features
4 MPLS Pseudowires

The latest Pseudowire (PWE3) enablers for legacy network migration(TDM and ATM) and their operation over IP/MPLS RAN backhaul
networks
5 MPLS OAM and Protection

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities ofIP/MPLS RAN backhaul networks
6 Packet Synchronization and Timing
7 MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative  MMBI
8 IP/MPLS in the RAN
Slide 47
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
OAM and ProvisioningMobile Backhaul
Operator expertise
in voice/wireless/TDM
Prefer
to automate
provisioning and
minimize CLI training
and script development
Need
Multi-service
IP/MPLS Network
NGN Bearer
OAM
SMS, MMS, HIS, Video, Voice
IP Multimedia
Service Creation
&
IP Multimedia
Control
Signaling
Application Server
Softswitch
Border Node
Home Subscriber Server
BTS
2G
GGSN
Simplified Control of IP Services
Configuration through a user-friendly graphical interface
Improved operator efficiency and accuracy
Service-Oriented Platform Enables Service-Oriented Provisioning
Provisioning is done at service level, not on individual port level
Increased Service offering flexibility and consistency
Service Templates
Common network-wide parameters, eliminating many input
errors
Fast reliable deployment of services, network parameters & policies
Where does MPLS OAM fit
End-End IP Circuit OAM
MPLS Tunnel, LSP, PW OAM
Attachment VC
OAM’s
Egress
PE
Attachment VC
OAM’s
Pseudowire, Traffic
Engineering or
VPN Label
LSP created by LDP and/or RSVP-TE
BTS
2G 2G-3G
BSC/RNC
Complex
MPLS OAM mechanisms applicable between BTS and MTSO
Operator GUI
OSS
OAM
Notification
(flat file)
OAM
Notification
OAM and Service Assurance
Mobile Backhaul
Calculate SLA
Performance Metrics
Test Service Latency, Jitter, Packet
Loss and Round-trip Delay
Monitor Alerts Operator of
Potential SLA Violation
Schedule a Suite of Tests at
Service Activation or Time of Day
Automate On-Demand Test
Suites from Fault Notification
Pseudowires
Cell-site
PE
MTSO
PE
L2 AC
L2 AC
Tunnel LSP
BTS
2G
WiMax
Other
Licensed/
Unlicensed
Radio Access
Node B
3G
MPLS RAN
Slide 50
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
Simple, Powerful end-to-end tests to verify Service Delivery
LSP Ping -Overview

LSP Ping is MPLS specific variation of traditional
ICMP ping/traceroute ad hoc tool

Ping is simple e2e loopback

Traceroute uses TTL to incrementally verify path

Ping paradigm useful for craftsperson initiated
testing

TELNET/CLI

LSP Ping is augmented with a number of TLVsprocessed by the receiver to extend functionality

As LSP is unidirectional, and Ping is bi-directional,
Ping is augmented with options for distinguishingreal problems from return path problems

Simple, fixed-field, hello protocol
Easily implemented in hardware
Very useful as a fault-detection mechanism

Nodes transmit BFD packets periodically over
respective directions of a path

If a node stops receiving BFD packets some
component of the bidirectional path is assumed to
have failed

Applicable to tunnel end-points
BFD -Overview
MPLS Pseudowires for Backhaul:
OAM Requirements
OAM needed for reactive & proactive networkmaintenance

Quick detection and localization of a defect

Proactive connectivity verification and performancemonitoring
OAM tools have a cost and revenue impact tocarriers

Reduce troubleshooting time and therefore reduce
OPEX

Enable delivery of high-margin premium services which
require a short restoration time

Top level requirements

Provide/co-ordinate OAM at relevant levels in IP/MPLSnetwork

Proactive and reactive mechanisms, independent at alllevels
Service Level
eg ATM OAM, MAC-Ping
VLL / PW Level
eg VCCV, PW status
Tunnel LSP Level
eg LSP ping
Service-Aware OAM Toolkit
Tool set for reactive & proactive network operation and maintenance

Defect detection, proactive connectivity verification, and performance monitoring

Provide/co-ordinate OAM at relevant levels in IP/MPLS network
Services Level: ATM, FR, ENet OAM, EFM, loopback, SAA
Tunnel LSP Level: LSP ping and LSP Traceroute
Pseudo Wire Level: PW Status, VCCV-BFD, TDM, FR, ATM notifications
BTS
2G
WiMAX
Other
Licensed/
Unlicensed
Radio Access
Node B
3G
Pseudowires
Tunnel LSP
MPLS AggregationMPLS
Access
Hub
Cell Site
MTSO
VLL / PW Level
eg BFD, VCCV, PW status
Service Level
eg ATM OAM, SDP-Ping
Tunnel / LSP Level
eg LSP Ping & Traceroute
Slide 54
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
Quickly isolate and troubleshoot faults to reduce MTTR
Virtual Circuit Connection
Verification (VCCV)
Mechanism for connectivity verification of PW
PE2PE1
Attachment
Circuit
Attachment
Circuit
PSN
PseudowireBTS
2G
2G-3G
BSC/RNC
Complex
Multiple PSN tunnel types

MPLS, IPSec, L2TP, GRE,…
Motivation

One tunnel can serve many pseudo-wires

MPLS LSP ping is sufficient to monitor the PSN tunnel
(PE-PE connectivity), but not PWs inside of tunnel
Features

Works over MPLS or IP networks

In-band CV via control word flag or out-of-band option by inserting router alert
label between tunnel and PW labels

Works with BFD, ICMP Ping and/or LSP ping
Slide 55
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
PW Status Signaling
Ac defect PW status: AC RX fault
Ac defect
PE2PE1
Attachment
Circuit
Attachment
Circuit
PSN
PseudowireBTS
2G
2G-3G
BSC/RNC
Complex

PWs have OAM capabilities to signal defect Defect
notifications:
Defect status mapped between AC and PW in the PE

PW status signaling propagates defect notifications along PW

Extension to T-LDP signaling
PW status signaling also works for MS-PWs

S-PEs:

Transparently pass remote defect notifications

Generate notifications of local defects
PW Status Signaling:
Multi-segment PWs
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS Forum2008 IP/MPLS ForumSlide 57
BTS
2G
WiMAX
Other
Licensed/
Unlicensed
Radio Access
Node B
3G
Pseudowires
S-PE T-PETunnel LSP
MPLS Aggregation
MPLS
Access
Hub
Cell Site
MTSO
T-PE
PW Status
MPLS Network Reliability
Both node level and network level recovery are required
RNC
Network Level Recovery
Dual-homing w/o RSTP
MPLS FRR
MPLS Standby Secondary
Sub 50 ms restoration
Node Level Recovery
Non-stop routing for ALL protocols (LDP,
OSPF, BGP, IS-IS, multicast, PIM-SM)
Non-Stop Service for ALL services (VPLS,
VLL, IP-VPN, IES, multicast)
MPLS RAN
ATM (IMA)
Ethernet
Node B
3G active
standby
Slide 58
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
End-to-end path
protection
PW Redundancy
Protects against PE and AC failures

PE configured with multiple pseudowires per VLL service with multiple end-points

Local precedence indicates primary PW for forwarding if multiple PWs are
operationally UP

PW status exchanged end-to-end to notify PEs of operational state of both PWs &
ports / attachment circuits (PW Status Notification)
RNC
MPLS RAN
AC redundancy:
MC  APS
MC -LAG
ATM (IMA)
Ethernet
Node B
3G active
standby
AC redundancy protocol drives
forwarding state of PWs/PEs
Forwarding direction
determined by PW state
PW status
draft-muley-pwe3-pw-redundancy-& draft-muley-dutta-pwe3-redundancy-bit-
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
Slide 59
Agenda
1 Introduction to the IP/MPLS
2 MPLS in the RAN Backhaul

Issues, trends, and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving RANbackhaul architectures
3 MPLS Basics

MPLS fit and operation in the mobile RAN network and the support of
end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features
4 MPLS Pseudowires

The latest Pseudowire (PWE3) enablers for legacy network migration(TDM and ATM) and their operation over IP/MPLS RAN backhaul
networks
5 MPLS OAM and Protection

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities ofIP/MPLS RAN backhaul networks
6 Packet Synchronization and Timing
7 MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative  MMBI
8 IP/MPLS in the RAN
Slide 60
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
The Need for Synchronization inMobile Networks

Synchronization is vital across many
elements in the mobile network

In the Radio Access Network (RAN), the need
is focused in three principal areas:
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS Forum2008 IP/MPLS ForumSlide 61
BTS
BTS
NodeB
NodeB
BSC
RNC
BSC
1: Radio Framing
Accuracy
2 : Handoff
Control 3 : Backhaul
Transport Reliability
Mobile Core
Network(s)

In Time Division Duplexing (TDD), the base station clocks must
be time synchronized to ensure no overlap of their transmissions
within the TDD frames
Radio Framing Accuracy

Ensuring synchronization allows for tighter accuracies and reduced
guard-bands to ensure high bandwidth utilization

In Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) centre frequencies must
be accurate for receivers to lock

Synchronization is vital to ensure service continuity (ie
successful handoff)

Studies have shown significant reduction in call drops when
good synchronization is in place; enhanced QoE
Handoff Control For Reliable
Mobility Performance
Backhaul Transport Reliability
RNCBTS/
NodeB X
Backhaul network
TCP end-to-end windowed transmission
Wander and Jitter in the Backhaul and Aggregation Network can
cause underflows and overflows
Slips in the PDH framing will cause bit errors leading to packet
rejections
Packet rejections lead to retransmissions and major perceptible
slow down in TCP windowed sessions
Synchronization in MobileBackhaul
Output Radio
Frequency
Accuracy
2G BTS
NodeB
TDM Input
Timing
Reference
TDM MSC
TDM Leased Lines
Chan STM
-
RNC
ATM IMA
N x T1 IMA
BSC,
Cell Site
MTSO
Radio Frequency Requirements
Radio System Frequency
Accuracy
Time/Phase
Accuracy
GSM 50 ppb No requirement
UMTS (FDD mode) 50 ppb No requirement
UMTS (TDD mode) 50 ppb 25 us
CDMA 50 ppb 10 us
WiMAX 8 ppm (<5 us)
Radio System Jitter/Wander
GSM G823/G824
UMTS (FDD mode) G823/G824
UMTS (TDD mode) G823/G824
CDMA G823/G824
WiMAX G823/G824

NOTE: The radio frequency requirements are a specification for the air
interface; not for the BTS-BSC interface The utilization of a reference
signal from the BTS-BSC interface for derivation of radio frequency
accuracy will require filtering to remove short term inaccuracies > 50ppb
Role of QoS & Resiliency in Supportof Packet-based Timing Protocols

The synchronization and timing requirements must continue to be
met as backhaul networks evolve from PDH/SDH to packet-basedtechnologies

How well a backhaul network supports these requirements usingpacket-based timing protocols depends on its QoS and resiliency

Inadequate QoS or resiliency can lead to impairments as
represented by these metrics

Packet Transfer Delay

May cause a lag in response to changes in the master clock

Static delay is not usually a problem for recovery of clock frequency ophase

Packet Delay Variation (PDV)
Appears as change in frequency or phase of the recovered clock
Multiple causes, including queuing delays, routing changes, congestion, etc

Extended Packet Loss (Network Outages)

May cause clock recovery process to go into “holdover” from lack ofinformation

Physical layer clock  
Using synchronous TDM interfaces, eg PDH/SDH

Using synchronous Ethernet as per G8261/G8262

GPS synchronization

Clock distribution over packet network
Clock distribution methods

IEEE 1588 v2  ITU-T Q13/SG15 currently developing
a telecom profile for IEEE 1588 v2

Adaptive & Differential Clock Synchronization
PDH/SDH Physical Layer Clock -MLPPP
Example
Timing distributed over Synchronous Infrastructure
Primary
Cell Site MTSO Reference
Clock
ATM/IMA
Node
B
PDH/
SDH
IWF_1 TDM
TDM IWF_2 MSC/MGW
BSC/RNC
PDH/
SDH
PDH/
SDH
ATM/IMA
MLPPP over T1/E1 infrastructure
BTS
MLPPP infrastructure uses synchronous T1/E1
facilities
Physical Layer Clock -Synchronous
Ethernet
Timing reference provided through Synchronous Infrastructure
Primary
Reference
Clock
L1 Transport
(Synchronous Ethernet Overlay)
ATM/IMA
Node
B
PDH
ATM/IMA
PDH/
SDH
SDH
IWF_
1
IWF_2 RNC SGSN

Very similar to using SONET or SDH to provide a synchronization
reference

Advantages:

Not affected by network traffic

Very good quality has been observed in initial testing (< 2ns Wander)

Disadvantages:

Requires continuous path of Synchronous Ethernet capable
links/nodes through network => cost concerns
IEEE 1588v2
Packet Timing Protocol
Master Slave
offset
t1
t4
Sync(livet1)
Fol
llow-up(t1ofsync)
t2
ms_difference
Delay_req(“t3”)
t3
sm_difference
Delay_response(t4)
Offset = slavetime -mastertime
ms_difference = t2 t1 = offset + ms_delay
sm_difference = t4 t3 = -offset + sm_delay
Offset = ((ms_differenence  sm_difference)  (ms_delay  sm_delay))/2
ms_delay + sm_delay = ms_difference + sm_difference
We can measure t1 t4, so can measure ms_difference and sm_difference;
but we can only calculate offset if we know relationship between ms_delay
and sm_delay
Assume ms_delay = sm_delay

Then, offset = (ms_difference  sm_difference)/2 = ((t2 -t1)  (t4 t3))/2
And one-way delay = (ms_difference + sm_difference)/2 = ((t2 t1) + (t4 t3))/2
=> Steer slave until t2 (average) = t1 + one-way delay (average)
Agenda
1 Introduction to the IP/MPLS
2 MPLS in the RAN Backhaul

Issues, trends, and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving RANbackhaul architectures
3 MPLS Basics

MPLS fit and operation in the mobile RAN network and the support of
end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features
4 MPLS Pseudowires

The latest Pseudowire (PWE3) enablers for legacy network migration(TDM and ATM) and their operation over IP/MPLS RAN backhaul
networks
5 MPLS OAM

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities ofIP/MPLS RAN backhaul networks
6 Packet Synchronization and Timing
7 MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative  MMBI
8 IP/MPLS in the RAN
Slide 71
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
MMBI Scope

Focus on MPLS technology to bring solutions to transport mobiletraffic (user plane and control plane) over access, aggregationand core networks

Covers 2G, 25G, 3G and mobile WiMAX networks, includingevolution from 2G and 25G to 3G and beyond

Consider RAN and Core equipments with range of physicalinterfaces (eg E1, STM1, DSL, FE, GE, etc) and technologies(PDH, SDH, ATM and ATM/IMA, PPP, FR, Ethernet, etc), eitherdirectly attached or through an intervening access network

Different kinds of access transmission technologies: pt-to-pt
access (xDSL, microwave, P2P Fiber), pt-to-mp access (GPON)

Address coexistence of legacy and next generation mobileequipment in the same network infrastructure

Support a smooth migration strategy for network operators asnewer TNLs (Transport Network Layers) are introduced andlegacy TNLs are phased out

MPLS facilities in Access and/or Aggregation networks leased
from a third party, and which may be shared by more than one
mobile operator

Converged access/aggregation network supporting both
wireline, eg residential and enterprise, and wireless services

QoS for support of distinct service types (eg real-time services
and associated delay and jitter requirements)

A mechanism for supporting clock distribution to the base
stations, including frequency, phase and time synchronization

Resiliency capabilities to support the reference architecture,
including failover times appropriate for wireless backhaul
networks Example capabilities are dual attachment at the
BSC/RNC and methods for failover

OAM to support the reference architecture
MMBI Scope (continued)
Deployment Scenarios --Location for MPLS functions is intended
MMBI Architecture and Use Cases
to be flexible

MPLS interworking functions could be located either:

In the edge node, or

in the access node, or

in the access gateway or

directly integrated into the base station
TNL (Transport Network Layer) Scenarios  Support for a range of
access technologies at base stations and controller elements

Case 1: TDM TNL

Base stations and controller elements communicating using TDM bitstreams

Case 2: ATM TNL
Base stations and controller elements communicating using ATM cells

Case 3: IP TNL
Base stations and controller communicating using IP packets

Case 4: HDLC TNL

Base stations and controller elements communicating using HDLC-encoded
bit streams (eg CDMA)
MFA Confidential and Proprietary
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS Forum2008 IP/MPLS ForumSlide 75
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul
Reference Model
HDLC
TNL
HDLC
TNL
Mobile
AggregationSite Gateway
IP
TNL
ATM TNL
TDM TNL
IP
TNL
ATM TNL
TDM TNL
Aggregation
network
BS
Access Aggregation
Access
network
xDSL,
microwave,
Leased
Line,
GPON,
Optical Eth
Access
Node
Cell Site
Gateway
EdgeNode
IP/MPLS
Core
mobile
network
Core
Iur/R3
Abis
A
Iub
Iub/R6/R2
Iub
RC
Iu-CS
Iu-PS
MPLS transport network
Gb
Iu-PS
Iu-CS
A
GbAbis
MSC 3G
SGSN 3G
SGSN 2G
MSC 2G
Abis
Abis
EdgeNode
EdgeNode
EdgeNode
PE PEPE PE
PEPE P
PE PEP P
PE PEP P
T-PE S-PE T-PEP
PE PEP P P
T-PET-PE S-PE P P
PE PEPE P PE
Iub/R6/R2
R3
CSN WiMAX
R3
Multiple TNLs  Corresponding to SuccessiveGenerations of Mobile Architecture
Network Specification TNL
GSM/GPRS/EDGE
(2G/25G)
TDM
UMTS R3, R99/R4 ATM
R99/R5, R6, R7 ATM
IP
CDMA 1x-RTT IS-2000 HDLC or TDM
CDMA 1x EV-DO IS-856 IP
Mobile WiMAX WiMAX Forum Network
Access Architecture
R11
IP

PW extends from PE to PE

Each TNL Type supported by corresponding TNL PW

In deployment scenario shown, PW extends from Cell Site
Gateway (CSG) to Mobile Aggregation Site Gateway (MASG)
Generic TNL Protocol Stack
Example of SS-PW Deployment

PW extends from T-PE to T-PE; switched at S-PE

Each TNL Type supported by corresponding TNL PW

In deployment scenario shown, PW extends from Cell Site
Generic TNL Protocol Stack
Example of MS-PW Deployment
Gateway (CSG) to Mobile Aggregation Site Gateway (MASG)
IP Transport Network Layer (TNL)
ASN (Access Service Node)
ASN GW: 1st IP router for MS

IP TNL is standardized in WiMAX Forum to be used between BS and ASN
GW

For User Plane: L3 tunneling is currently specified in WIMAX ForumNetwork Architecture R11 (Sept 07) to transport IP-CS between the BS andthe ASN-GW

Services encapsulation over GRE for IPv4, IPv6, IPv4oEth, IPv6oEth

L2 tunneling to transport IP-CS between the BS and the ASN-GW is still under
discussion (L2VPN MPLS)

For Control plane: traffic encapsulation is done over UDP/IP

R6/R8/R2 interfaces have to be backhauled over PSN fixednetworks

Only IP connectivity is standardized in WiMAX Forum between BSand ASN GW at service transport level

This WiMAX reference architecture is quite close to LTEarchitecture (flat and simplified architecture relying on IP protocol)
Mobile WiMAX
Reference architecture
Interface between the MS and the BS
Functionality: air interface
Timing deployment scenarios
BNG
TNL
TNL
Aggregation
network
Access network
xDSL,
microwave,
Leased Line,
GPON,
Optical Eth
Access
Node
Access
Gateway Edge
Node
PRCviaGPSBTS / Node B
Access Aggregation
BTS /Node B CSG BTS /Node B MASG
A
Core
mobile
network
2G -3 G
BSC / RNC
Complex
Iu -CS
Iu -PS
Gb
Iu -PS
Iu-CS
A
Gb
SGSN 3G
SGSN 2G
MSC 3G
MSC 2G
(a1)
(a2)
(a3)
(a4)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Deployment cases

Deployment case (ax): All clocks are over physicallayer, both the RNC and Node B have the same referencePRC clock

Deployment case (b): The aggregation network segmentis running the clock over packet scenario The Edgenode would regenerate the physical clock andredistribute it over the access network

Deployment case ( c ): The Aggregation networksegment and the access segment are running clock overpacket  The access gateway would regenerate thephysical clock and redistribute it to the Node-B

Deployment case (d): The Aggregation network segmentand the access segment as well as the access gateway,
are running clock over packet The Node-B recovers thephysical clock
Work on timing distribution exchanged by liaison with
Timing Distribution Methods
Work in Progress
ITU-T Q13/15

Intended to align with the revised Recommendation G8261
Timing distribution approaches; work item focuses on
latter case

Over a synchronous physical layer (eg PDH/SDH, SynchE)

Over a packet network, including MPLS (eg NTP, Clock PW)

Timing distribution over packet networks to consider:

Quality of the Node B oscillator

Node B physical layer interface

Tolerance specification at the input to Node B

Approaches under consideration

Use of a timing PW and SATOP

Differential timing technique

Adaptive timing technique
Agenda
1 Introduction to the IP/MPLS Forum
2 MPLS in the RAN Backhaul

Issues, trends, and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving RANbackhaul architectures
3 MPLS Basics

MPLS fit and operation in the mobile RAN network and the support of
end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features
4 MPLS Pseudowires

The latest Pseudowire (PWE3) enablers for legacy network migration(TDM and ATM) and their operation over IP/MPLS RAN backhaul
networks
5 MPLS OAM

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities ofIP/MPLS RAN backhaul networks
6 Packet Synchronization and Timing
7 MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative  MMBI
8 IP/MPLS in the RAN
Slide 84
Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
IP/MPLS RAN Backhaul Networks:
Critical Success Factors

Carrier Grade IP/MPLS services  
High Availability

Fast reconvergence

Efficient End-to-End Management
and OAM for rapid mass
deployment

Scalability to large numbers of
cell sites

Multi-Segment Pseudowires

Static-to-dynamic PW switching

Base Station synchronization

Carrier frequency accuracy of 50 PPB
for GSM/W-CDMA

Need to preserve synchronization &
timing with Carrier Ethernet transport
Slide 85Copyright ⓒ 2008 IP/MPLS Forum
CopyrightCopyright ⓒⓒ2008 IP/MPLS2008 ForumIP/MPLS Forum
Conclusions

Rapid growth in mobile backhaul bandwidth demand

Scaling the backhaul in TDM way is expensive

Industry is shifting towards IP based networks

IP/MPLS offers many benefits and has been deployedglobally in mobile core Similar drivers apply to backhaul

Standards for backhaul transport -leaning towards IP

In recent years, IP/MPLS Forum has published
implementation agreements to facilitate the migration of
ATM and TDM to MPLS-based infrastructure

IP/MPLS Forum aims to complement the cost benefits of
Ethernet with the proven track record of MPLS for building
converged, reliable and QoS-aware mobile grade
infrastructure
Related Standards Specificationsand Work in Progress
IETF PWE3
Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Architecture

RFC 3985
An Architecture for Multi-Segment Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge

draft-ietf-pwe3-ms-pw-arch-03txt
ITU-T

Recommendation G8261 “Timing and Synchronization in PacketNetworks”
IEEE

IEEE draft standard 1588 v2 (Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol)
work in progress
Metro Ethernet Forum

Mobile Backhaul Project Implementation Agreements  work in progress
For More Information  
http://wwwipmplsforumorg
http://wwwietforg
http://wwwituint
http://wwwmplsrccom
Thank you for attending the
IP/MPLS in the Mobile RadioAccess Network (RAN) Tutorial
View All (819)
4G (2) 4G Evolution (1) 5G (36) 5g (1) 802.11 (1) 802.1X (1) ALTO (1) ANDSF (1) AT&T (2) Acceleration (1) Adobe HDS (3) Akamai (6) Amazon (3) Apple HLS (4) Authentication (1) BRAS (2) BT (1) Backbone (4) Backhaul (12) BitTorrent (1) Broadcasting (3) C-RAN (13) C-RAN/Fronthaul (12) CCN (4) CDN (52) CDNi (1) COLT (1) CORD (1) CPRI (2) Cache Control (1) Caching (5) Carrier Cloud (2) Carrier Ethernet (9) Channel Zapping (4) China Mobile (1) China Telecom (1) Cloud (10) Cloudfront (1) DASH (2) DCA (1) DHCP (3) DNS (1) DSA (1) Data Center (7) Dynamic Web Acceleration (1) EDGE (1) EPC (5) Energy (1) Ericsson (5) Ethernet (8) FEO (2) Fairness (1) Fronthaul (5) GiGAtopia (1) Gigabit Internet (2) Global CDN (1) Google (5) HLS (1) HTTP (1) HTTP Adaptive Streaming (18) HTTP Progressive Download (3) HTTP Streaming (1) HetNet (1) Hot-Lining (1) Hotspot 2.0 (2) Huawei (3) ICN (4) IP (1) IP Allocation (1) IP Routing (8) IPTV (15) Intel (1) Internet (1) Interoperability (2) IoST (1) IoT (14) KT (22) LG U+ (3) LTE (70) LTE MAC (1) LTE-A (2) Licensed CDN (1) M2M (3) MEC (3) MPLS (25) MVNO (1) Market (4) Metro Ethernet (7) Microsoft (2) Migration (1) Mobile (4) Mobile Backhaul (1) Mobile Broadcasting (1) Mobile CDN (2) Mobile IP (1) Mobile IPTV (3) Mobile Video (1) Mobile Web Perormance (1) Mobility (1) Multi-Screen (7) Multicast (7) NFC (1) NFV (2) NTT Docomo (2) Netflix (6) Network Protocol (31) Network Recovery (3) OAM (6) OTT (31) Ofcom (1) Offloading (2) OpenFlow (1) Operator CDN (14) Orange (1) P2P (4) PCC (1) Page Speed (1) Programmable (1) Protocol (7) Pseudowire (1) QoS (5) Router (1) SCAN (1) SD-WAN (1) SDN (15) SDN/NFV (15) SK Telecom (22) SON (1) SaMOG (1) Samsung (2) Security (6) Service Overlay (1) Silverlight (4) Small Cell (3) Smart Cell (1) Smart Grid (2) Smart Network (2) Supper Cell (1) Telefonica (1) Telstra (1) Terms (1) Traffic (2) Traffic Engineering (1) Transcoding (3) Transparent Cache (2) Transparent Caching (14) VLAN (2) VPLS (2) VPN (9) VRF (2) Vendor Product (2) Verizon (2) Video Optimization (4) Video Pacing (1) Video Streaming (14) Virtual Private Cloud (1) Virtualization (3) White Box (1) Wholesale CDN (4) Wi-Fi (13) WiBro(WiMAX) (4) Wireless Operator (5) YouTube (4) eMBMS (4) eNB (1) 망이용대가 (1) 망중립성 (1) 스마트 노드 (1)

 

 

     
         
     

 

     
     

넷매니아즈 회원 가입 하기

2020년 1월 현재 넷매니아즈 회원은 49,000+분입니다.

 

넷매니아즈 회원 가입을 하시면,

► 넷매니아즈 신규 컨텐츠 발행 소식 등의 정보를

   이메일 뉴스레터로 발송해드립니다.

► 넷매니아즈의 모든 컨텐츠를 pdf 파일로 다운로드

   받으실 수 있습니다. 

     
     

 

     
         
     

 

 

비밀번호 확인
코멘트 작성시 등록하신 비밀번호를 입력하여주세요.
비밀번호