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DHCP-based Subscriber Management
May 25, 2008 | By Juniper
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Transcript
Application Note
Juniper Networks, Inc.
1194 North Mathilda Avenue
Sunnyvale, California 94089
USA
408.745.2000
1.888 JUNIPER
www.juniper.net
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
How Juniper Allows Operators to Bypass PPP by Integrating
DHCP with RADIUS
Part Number: 350086-002 May 2008
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
Table of Contents
Introduction 3
Scope 3
Design Considerations 3
Challenges to DHCP Subscriber Management 3
Applying Subscriber Policies: RADIUS Name 4
Forwarding Traffic to Subscribers: Demux Table 5
Description and Deployment Scenario 6
Routers: Populating the Demux Table 6
Static Subscriber Interfaces 7
DHCP-EXT: Creating Dynamic Interfaces during DHCP Address Assignment 7
Packet Trigger: Creating Dynamic Interfaces Using IP Addresses 7
IP Subscriber Manager 8
Detailed DHCP Subscriber Management Example 8
Summary 10
References 10
About Juniper Networks 10
2 Copyright ⓒ2008, Juniper Networks, Inc.
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
Introduction
What is subscriber management, and why is it so important? Simply put, subscriber management
allows the network to recognize who is attempting to use network resources and dictate the services
which the subscriber has access to For example:
• Subscriber A may have signed up for a “basic” best-effort Internet Access service at 128 Kbps
• Subscriber B may subscribe to an “enhanced” service providing 384 Kbps of Internet Access
• Subscriber C may have opted for a “guaranteed bandwidth” Internet Access service to replace
a leased line
• Subscriber D may be using Voice over IP (VoIP) in addition to the basic data service
• Subscriber E may subscribe to an IPTV service in addition to voice and data services
• Subscriber F may use the data and IPTV service, but has not signed up for VoIP
• Subscriber G may have access to the same services as Subscriber C, although the operator has
been instructed to perform Lawful Intercept on this user
Managing the subscriber can be broken into two basic components, which together constitute the
“policy” assigned to each subscriber:
• Determining which resources (services) the subscriber can use The services may be optional
(for example, IPTV) or automatically enabled (for example, Internet Access, Lawful Intercept)
• Determining the priority of each subscriber’s traffic (for each service) as it traverses the
network
Initial subscriber management implementations relied heavily on PPP over Ethernet or asynchronous
transfer mode (ATM) to provide these capabilities More recently, Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP)-based IP over Ethernet (IPoE) support has been added in both the standards bodies
and Juniper routers to enable this method to be used instead of PPP for handling broadcast TV and
other similar applications
Scope
This application note describes how Juniper Networks E-series Broadband Services Routers integrate
DHCP and RADIUS It describes the subsystems and alternatives, as well as providing a step-by-step
description of the interactions
Design Considerations
Challenges to DHCP Subscriber Management
Understanding the challenges to providing a policy to each subscriber requires an understanding
of how connections are created and packets are forwarded in a broadband network There are two
critical functions provided by PPP which must be recreated when using DHCP
• RADIUS name: During the login process, PPP sends a unique username to the authentication
(RADIUS) server to verify which services this subscriber can access This username is typically
assigned by the service provider and programmed into the DSL modem, which automatically
logs into the network when powered on
Standard DHCP does not provide any mechanism to uniquely and consistently identify
a subscriber Another method must be employed to uniquely and consistently identify
subscribers, and will be discussed below
• Packet forwarding: As illustrated in Figure 1, broadband networks typically use unnumbered
interfaces and /32 addresses to minimize the number of IP addresses required in the network
IP routing cannot be used to forward downstream packets to the subscriber since there is no
IP address assigned to these interfaces, and there are therefore no entries in the routing table
for the IP address (or subnet) of each subscriber
Copyright ⓒ2008, Juniper Networks, Inc. 3
4 Copyright ⓒ2008, Juniper Networks, Inc.
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
Figure 1. Broadband Networks Using Unnumbered IP Addresses
PPP addresses this by assigning a session identifier (sess-id) which uniquely identifies the subscriber
for the duration of the connection. This sess-id is assigned by the edge router during session
initiation, and every subsequent packet to/from each subscriber carries this identifier.
The edge router (B-RAS) uses this session identifier to build its forwarding table. When the subscriber
initially logs on, the edge router assigns the PPP session identifier and associates it with the port and
VLAN(or the ATM virtual circuit (VC) used to reach this subscriber. Together, this port and VLAN/VC
is called the subscriber interface. All packets destined for the subscriber (and therefore carrying the
session-id) are forwarded to this interface for delivery to the subscriber. The table which associates
PPP sess-id and interfaces is called a demux table and is illustrated below.
Table 1. Typical PPP-Based Demux Table
Assigned Username Subscriber Interface
P12XYZ345 Port 4, VLAN 17
P67ABC890 Port 5, VLAN 1003
P00KLM117 Port 6, VLAN 101
The demux table is used only for forwarding traffic downstream to the subscriber. Upstream traffic
entering the edge router via an unnumbered interface can be forwarded using the IP routing table.
Since DHCP does not have a session identifier, another mechanism must be employed to uniquely
identify the subscriber in the demux table. The following section explains how these functions are
addressed when using DHCP.
Applying Subscriber Policies: RADIUS Name
In PPP networks, the username assigned by the service provider can be used as the RADIUS name.
DHCP does not have a similar username, so requires a different means of creating a RADIUS name.
In DHCP networks, there are several potential ways to uniquely construct a RADIUS name. These
include:
1. The Media Access Control (MAC) address of the client (or its surrogate, such as a residential
gateway). This method is administratively intensive. A network administrator would need to
provision the MAC address before the subscriber could use the network. Re-provisioning would be
required if the device gets replaced. As a result, this is not an acceptable method.
2. The IP address of the client. In a DHCP environment, the IP address is likely to change over time.
Thus, the subscriber cannot be uniquely identified in the RADIUS database based on the assigned
IP address.
RGRG
RG
RG
Unnumbered
Interfaces
Edge Router
(B-RAS)
Broadband Network Using Unnumbered IP Addresses
192.168.10.1/32
192.168.10.3/32
192.168.10.2/32
Copyright ⓒ2008, Juniper Networks, Inc. 5
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
3. A name provisioned at the edge router. It is, of course, possible to statically create a RADIUS
name for each broadband user. Since this is operationally intensive and error-prone, it is not
recommended.
4. A name dynamically created by the edge router. This method allows the router to dynamically
create a username based on the port and VLAN/VC. This method uniquely identifies a subscriber
only when there is a dedicated VLAN/virtual circuit per subscriber. When VLANs are shared by
multiple subscribers, this approach cannot be used.
5. A name forwarded by a downstream device such as a digital subscriber line access multiplexer
(DSLAM). The DSLAM dynamically creates the identifier and inserts the name into the DHCP
stream. DHCP option 82 allows a downstream device such as a DSLAM to insert a unique identifier,
called a remote identifier, during DHCP session establishment. This name is typically created
dynamically by the DSLAM based upon a unique DSLAM name and physical port to which the
subscriber is connected. Hence this name is unique for each subscriber.
When dedicating a VLAN for each subscriber, the most common choice is for the edge router to
dynamically create the RADIUS name. When sharing VLANs among multiple subscribers, using DHCP
option 82 is the most common choice.
Forwarding Traffic to Subscribers: Demux Table
PPP builds a demux table using the dynamically assigned sess-id created by the edge router. Since
DHCP does not assign a sess-id, a different identifier must be used.
The same choices can be used for populating the demux table as can be used for the RADIUS name.
The key difference is that the subscriber’s IP address can be used in the demux table, since this
table is built after the subscriber is authenticated. Indeed, using the IP address is the most common
method for building the demux table. This is depicted in Figure 2 below.
Figure 2. Demux Table
E320
User A
User B
User C
10.0.0.2
10.0.0.3
10.0.0.4
IP 1 – User A
IP 2 – User B
IP 3 – User C
IP SA
10.0.0.2/32
10.0.0.3/32
10.0.0.4/32
Subscriber intf
IP1
IP2
IP3
Demux
Table
Demux Table
Ethernet link or VLAN
6 Copyright ⓒ2008, Juniper Networks, Inc.
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
Description and Deployment Scenario
Routers: Populating the Demux Table
The question now becomes how the Broadband Services Router (BSR) learns about the IP addresses
and adds entries into the demux tables. Juniper routers provide three methods for populating the
demux table for upstream traffic and the routing table for the downstream traffic, in order to get
traffic mapped to the correct subscriber interfaces.
1. Static Subscriber Interfaces (SSIs): The first method is to statically define the demux and routing
tables. This method is typically used when the router is not involved in assigning an IP address,
such as when a static IP address (or subnet range) is defined for the host.
2. Dynamic Subscriber Interfaces (DSIs) using DHCP flows (DHCP-EXT): In this scenario, entries are
added into the demux and routing tables by listening to the DHCP flows that assign the IP address
to the subscriber.
3. Dynamic Subscriber Interfaces (DSIs) using IP Addresses (Packet Trigger): This method dynamically
adds entries into the demux and routing tables as new IP addresses are received on an interface.
This method is typically used when the router is not involved in assigning an IP address, such as
when the DHCP server resides on the same network as the host. Since the router is not involved in
initial address assignment, it must wait until it receives an IP packet.
These alternatives are depicted in Figure 3. The DHCP server can be a standalone device (as depicted
in the diagram), or the BSR can function as the DHCP server.
Figure 3. Populating the Demux Table
Destination Interface
192.18.10.1 Port 4, VLAN 17
192.18.10.2 Port 5, VLAN 1003
192.18.10.3 Port 6, VLAN 101
Static Subscriber Interface
DHCP–Request
192.18.10.1
(static)
192.18.10.2
(May be integrated
Into E-series router)
192.18.10.3
Dynamic Subscriber Interface (DHCP–EXT)
Dynamic Subscriber Interface (Pocket Trigger)
E320
RG
DHCP
Server
DHCP
Server
APPS
IP Packet (Source IP = 192.168.10.3)
DHCP–Ack (Your–IP = 192.168.10.3)
DHCP–Request
DHCP–Ack (Your–IP = 192.168.10.3)
Copyright ⓒ2008, Juniper Networks, Inc. 7
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
The following table summarizes these options:
Table 2. Demux Table Options
Description Common usage
Static (SSI) Statically configured Server farms
DSI-EXT Dynamically configured based
on DHCP flows
Broadband networks
Packet Trigger Dynamically configured based
on received IP packet
Branch office
All three methods are supported by Juniper Networks E-series edge routers such as the E320 BSR
and ERX family, and are discussed in more detail below. Devices which support DHCP subscriber
management are called Broadband Services Routers (BSRs).
Static Subscriber Interfaces
The first way to create the demux table is via static configuration, resulting in static subscriber
interfaces (SSIs). The network administrator configures the demux table, gives it a name (such as the
IP address) and assigns a prefix (such as /32). Optionally, policies and a qos-profile can be configured
over the subscriber interface. In addition, a downstream route must be configured which specifies the
SSI as the next-hop.
When using static configuration, any subnet prefix can be used. This method is most commonly used
when connecting to a server farm.
DHCP-EXT: Creating Dynamic Interfaces during DHCP Address
Assignment
Juniper’s BSR can also create dynamic subscriber interfaces by monitoring DHCP flows. Upon
detecting a DHCP-ACK message (address assignment), the router automatically creates the Dynamic
Subscriber Interface (DSI). By creating the DSI based on the DHCP-ACK message being sent, DSIs are
created only for those clients for which the external DHCP server is allocating valid IP addresses. In
the downstream direction, the BSR will automatically create a /32 route for the IP address allocated
via DHCP with the created DSI as next-hop.
The BSR keeps a shadow lease timer based on the lease time assigned by the DHCP server. This timer
is updated based on DHCP renew messages in order for the BSR to remain in sync with the DHCP
server. The DSI will be automatically deleted upon lease expiration or upon explicit address release by
the DHCP client.
Events can be sent to an application called IP Subscriber Manager, which enables subscriber
management on the DSIs. IP Subscriber Manager will be explained later in this document.
Packet Trigger: Creating Dynamic Interfaces Using IP Addresses
In the event that DHCP address assignments do not flow through the BSR, dynamic subscriber
interfaces (DSIs) can get created when the first packet is detected from a host. All subsequent IP packets
with the same IP source addresses are received on that DSI. In the downstream direction, the router
automatically creates a /32 route for that IP source address with the created DSI as the next hop.
On each physical interface, you can specify a range of addresses for which you want the router to
dynamically create a logical interface. Any IP packets with a source IP address outside the configured
“DSI ranges” are received and processed normally on the underlying interface (Ethernet or VLAN) just
as if there were no subscriber interfaces at all.
The DSI is only deleted if an inactivity-timer has been configured. The inactivity-timer monitors
whether the DSI is receiving upstream traffic. When no upstream traffic is received for a period equal
to the inactivity-timeout, the DSI gets deleted.
8 Copyright ⓒ2008, Juniper Networks, Inc.
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
Events can be sent to IP Subscriber Manager, which enables subscriber management on the DSIs.
IP Subscriber Manager
IP Subscriber Manager (IPSubMgr) is the application in the Juniper BSR that enables AAA services for
DHCP-based subscribers. Upon DSI creation, the router consults a locally configured profile (using
an interface-profile) or goes out to RADIUS (using a service-profile) to obtain a virtual router/VPN
routing and forwarding table (VRF), policy and/or qos-profile information in order to complete the DSI
configuration. In addition, IP Subscriber Manager allows RADIUS accounting to be supported on DSIs.
RADIUS accounting starts upon completion of DSI configuration and stops when the DSI gets deleted
(either by inactivity-timeout or by DHCP lease expiration).
Detailed DHCP Subscriber Management Example
Figure 4 details the step-by-step operation for DHCP-based subscriber management from the moment
the DHCP client connects until he or she disconnects. In this example, the BSR is using the DHCPEXT
function. IPSubMgr is configured to consult RADIUS for obtaining subscriber-specific parameters.
Figure 4. Detailed Operation for DHCP-Based Subscriber Management
1. DHCP client sends a DHCP discover. This message is received on the primary IP interface on
the Ethernet link (or VLAN). The Ethernet link or VLAN could be a numbered or an unnumbered
interface.
2. The Broadband Services Router (BSR), such as Juniper’s E320, relays the DHCP discover to the
DHCP server(s) that are configured in the virtual router in which the primary IP interface on the
Ethernet link was configured. The giaddr in the relayed DHCP message is the address of the
Ethernet link which was either numbered or unnumbered. BSR can add DHCP option82 (circuit-id)
or alternatively option82 could already have been added by the DSLAM to identify the DSL line id.
3. DHCP server(s) responds with a DHCP offer. The address offered could be selected based on a
variety of criteria such as giaddr or option82.
4. BSR relays the DHCP offer(s) to the DHCP client.
5. DHCP client selects one of the DHCP offers via a DHCP request.
E320
(1) DHCP discover
(4) DHCP offer
(5) DHCP request
(8) DHCP ACK
(2) DHCP discover
(3) DHCP offer
(6) DHCP request
(7) DHCP ACK
(10) Radius auth req
(11) Radius auth resp
(15) Radius acct start
(17) Radius acct stop
(9) DHCP-EXT informs IPSubMgr
(12) DSI IP1 created based on Radius response
(13) Demux table and /32 route installed
(14) DHCP shadow lease installed to manage DSI
(16) Lease time expires -> DSI deleted
DHCP
Client
DHCP
server
Radius
server
Primary IP
DSI IP1
DHCP
relay
Demux
Table
Ethernet link or VLAN
Copyright ⓒ2008, Juniper Networks, Inc. 9
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
6. BSR relays the DHCP request to the DHCP server from which the corresponding offer was
received. The giaddr in the relayed DHCP message is the address of the Ethernet link which was
either numbered or unnumbered.
7. The DHCP server acknowledges the chosen IP address for the client via a DHCP-ACK message and
creates the DHCP binding for this address.
8. BSR relays the DHCP-ACK towards the client.
9. DHCP-EXT notifies the DHCP-ACK message and informs IPSubMgr about this event. Internally a
“subscriber” is created which will now be further configured via the IPSubMgr application.
10. IPSubMgr was configured to go to RADIUS for subscriber configuration (username can be any
of the parameters as discussed previously). Also note that one of the RADIUS vendor-specific
attributes (VSAs) allow us to send all DHCP options up to the RADIUS server, so the RADIUS server
can use any of these options to identify the subscriber.
11. RADIUS server returns a successful authentication response and includes VSAs that allow the BSR
to determine in which VR/VRF the subscriber should be configured, and which policies and qosprofiles
need to be attached to this subscriber.
12. Based on the RADIUS response and based on the fact that the BSR was configured to create DSIs
on that particular interface, a DSI IP1 gets created for this DHCP subscriber and the parameters
returned by RADIUS are used to configure this DSI. (Note: if the BSR is configured not to create
DSIs, then the RADIUS returned parameters will be installed on the primary IP interface. This
would not be a typical configuration but it is possible.)
13. The demux table for the underlying interface is updated with the IP address that was allocated by
DHCP to map incoming traffic to DSI IP1. In addition, a host route will be installed in the routing
table to ensure that traffic downstream to the DHCP client will be directed to DSI IP1.
14. A DHCP shadow lease is installed to remain in sync with the external DHCP server. DSI IP1
lifetime will be synchronized with the DHCP binding on the DHCP server. From now on, the DSI
IP1 is completely configured based on RADIUS response, and traffic can start flowing according to
the traffic contract that was assigned to that subscriber.
15. The BSR sends a RADIUS accounting start message. Optionally, interim accounting messages
could be sent.
16. When the lease time expires (client gets disconnected) or when the client sends an explicit
DHCP release message, the shadow lease on the BSR for this DHCP client times out and the
corresponding DSI will be deleted and all state associated with this DSI gets removed.
17. The BSR sends a RADIUS accounting stop message to close the accounting records for this
subscriber.
10
Copyright 2008 Juniper Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. Juniper Networks,
the Juniper Networks logo, NetScreen, and ScreenOS are registered trademarks
of Juniper Networks, Inc. in the United States and other countries. JUNOS and
JUNOSe are trademarks of Juniper Networks, Inc. All other trademarks, service
marks, registered trademarks, or registered service marks are the property of
their respective owners. Juniper Networks assumes no responsibility for any
inaccuracies in this document. Juniper Networks reserves the right to change,
modify, transfer, or otherwise revise this publication without notice.
CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS
AND SALES HEADQUARTERS FOR
NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA
Juniper Networks, Inc.
1194 North Mathilda Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 USA
Phone: 888.JUNIPER (888.586.4737)
or 408.745.2000
Fax: 408.745.2100
www.juniper.net
EAST COAST OFFICE
Juniper Networks, Inc.
10 Technology Park Drive
Westford, MA 01886-3146 USA
Phone: 978.589.5800
Fax: 978.589.0800
ASIA PACIFIC REGIONAL SALES HEADQUARTERS
Juniper Networks (Hong Kong) Ltd.
26/F, Cityplaza One
1111 King’s Road
Taikoo Shing, Hong Kong
Phone: 852.2332.3636
Fax: 852.2574.7803
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST, AFRICA
REGIONAL SALES HEADQUARTERS
Juniper Networks (UK) Limited
Building 1
Aviator Park
Station Road
Addlestone
Surrey, KT15 2PG, U.K.
Phone: 44.(0).1372.385500
Fax: 44.(0).1372.385501
To purchase Juniper Networks solutions, please
contact your Juniper Networks sales representative
at 1-866-298-6428 or authorized reseller.
DHCP-based Subscriber Management
Summary
PPP has enjoyed solid success as a dial up and broadband network access protocol. However, DHCP
is gaining industry momentum in lieu of PPP. To meet the needs of customers transitioning to DHCP,
Juniper is constantly evolving and enhancing the JUNOSe feature set with robust DHCP subscriber
management features.
The current feature set includes Subscriber Interfaces, DHCP External Server, and IP Subscriber
Manager for RADIUS integration. These features on top of the current JUNOSe subscriber
management capabilities provide a highly scalable and easy to manage edge IP platform for
broadband networks.
References
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
EAP http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2284.html
EAPoL (IEEE 802.1x) http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1X-
2001.pdf
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
PPP http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1661.html
PPP over Ethernet http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2516.html
PPP Link Quality Monitoring (LQM) http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1333.html
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)
DHCP http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2131.html
DHCP Relay Agent Info Option http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3046.html
About Juniper Networks
Juniper Networks, Inc. is the leader in high-performance networking. Juniper offers a highperformance
network infrastructure that creates a responsive and trusted environment for
accelerating the deployment of services and applications over a single network. This fuels highperformance
businesses. Additional information can be found at www.juniper.net.
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