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3GPP LTE Channels and MAC Layer
July 01, 2009 | By EventHelix
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EventHelix.com


.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
3GPP LTE Channels and MAC
Layer


ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.
All Rights Reserved.



EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
LTE MAC Layer Functions

.real-time and embedded systems
Mapping between
Transparent and Logical
Channels
Error Correction
Through Hybrid ARQ
Priority Handling with
Dynamic Scheduling
Logical Channel
Prioritization
MAC
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
MAC in the LTE Protocol

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Stack

MME
NAS
eNodeB
RRC
PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY
UE
NAS
RRC
PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
LTE Channel Architecture

.real-time and embedded systems
PHY
Physical Channels
MAC
Transport Channels
RLC
Logical Channels
1.
RLC layer passes data
to the MAC layer as
logical channels.
2.
The MAC layer formats
and sends the logical
channel data as
transport channel.
3.
The physical layer
encodes the transport
channel data to
physical channels.
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
Downlink PDCP, RLC and

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
MAC Sublayer Organization

ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.


EventHelix.com
.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Uplink PDCP, RLC and MAC
Sublayer Organization
Multiplexing...
HARQScheduling / Priority HandlingTransport ChannelsMACRLCPDCPSegm.
ARQ etcSegm.
ARQ etcLogical Channels
ROHCROHCRadio BearersSecuritySecurityCCCH
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc. 6
EventHelix.com
.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Uplink PDCP, RLC and MAC
Sublayer Organization
Multiplexing...
HARQScheduling / Priority HandlingTransport ChannelsMACRLCPDCPSegm.
ARQ etcSegm.
ARQ etcLogical Channels
ROHCROHCRadio BearersSecuritySecurityCCCH
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc. 6

EventHelix.com
.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems LTE Downlink Channels
BCCHPCCHCCCHDCCHDTCHMCCHMTCHBCHPCHDL-SCHMCHDownlinkLogical
channelsDownlinkTransport
channelsDownlinkPhysical
channelsPBCHPDSCHPMCHPDCCHPHICHEventHelix.com
.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems LTE Downlink Channels
BCCHPCCHCCCHDCCHDTCHMCCHMTCHBCHPCHDL-SCHMCHDownlinkLogical
channelsDownlinkTransport
channelsDownlinkPhysical
channelsPBCHPDSCHPMCHPDCCHPHICH
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

7


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
LTE Downlink Logical

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Channels 1

.A downlink channel that transfers paging information and
system information change notifications.
.This channel is used for paging when the network does not
know the location cell of the UE.
Paging Control
Channel
(PCCH)
.A downlink channel for broadcasting system control
information.
Broadcast Control
Channel
(BCCH)
.Channel for transmitting control information between UEs
and network.
.This channel is used for UEs having no RRC connection with
the network.
Common Control
Channel
(CCCH)
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
LTE Downlink Logical

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Channels 2

.A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control
information between a UE and the network.
.Used by UEs having an RRC connection.
Dedicated Control
Channel
(DCCH)
.A point-to-point channel, dedicated to one UE, for the transfer of user
information.
.A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink.
Dedicated Traffic
Channel
(DTCH)
.A point-to-multipoint downlink channel used for transmitting MBMS
control information from the network to the UE, for one or several MTCHs.
.This channel is only used by UEs that receive MBMS.
Multicast Control
Channel
(MCCH)
.A point-to-multipoint downlink channel for transmitting traffic data from
the network to the UE.
.This channel is only used by UEs that receive MBMS.
Multicast Traffic Channel
(MTCH)
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
LTE Downlink Transport

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Channels 1

.Supports UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving
.Broadcasts in the entire coverage area of the cell;
.Mapped to physical resources which can be used dynamically also for
traffic/other control channels.
Paging Channel
(PCH)
.Fixed, pre-defined transport format
.Broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell
Broadcast
Channel
(BCH)
.Broadcasts in the entire coverage area of the cell;
.Supports MBSFN combining of MBMS transmission on multiple cells;
.Supports semi-static resource allocation e.g. with a time frame of a long
cyclic prefix.
Multicast Channel
(MCH)
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc. 10

EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
LTE Downlink Transport

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Channels 2

.Supports Hybrid ARQ
.Supports dynamic link adaptation by varying the
modulation, coding and transmit power
.Optionally supports broadcast in the entire cell;
.Optionally supports beam forming
.Supports both dynamic and semi-static resource
allocation
.Supports UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to
enable UE power saving
.Supports MBMS transmission
Downlink
Shared
Channel
(DL-SCH)
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

11


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
LTE Downlink Physical

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Channels 1

.Carries the DL-SCH and PCH
.QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM Modulation
Physical Downlink
Shared Channel
(PDSCH)
.Informs the UE about the resource allocation of PCH and
DL-SCH, and Hybrid ARQ information related to DL-SCH
.Carries the uplink scheduling grant
.QPSK Modulation
Physical Downlink
Control Channel
(PDCCH)
.Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs in response to uplink
transmissions.
.QPSK Modulation
Physical Hybrid ARQ
Indicator Channel
(PHICH)
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc. 12

EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
LTE Downlink Physical

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Channels 2

.The coded BCH transport block is mapped to four sub-frames
within a 40 ms interval. 40 ms timing is blindly detected, i.e.
there is no explicit signalling indicating 40 ms timing
.Each sub-frame is assumed to be self-decodable, i.e. the BCH
can be decoded from a single reception, assuming sufficiently
good channel conditions.
.QPSK Modulation
Physical
Broadcast
Channel
(PBCH)
.Carries the MCH
.QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM Modulation
Physical
Multicast
Channel
(PMCH)
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

13


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
LTE Uplink Channels

.real-time and embedded systems
CCCHDCCHDTCHUL-SCHRACHUplinkLogical
channelsUplinkTransport
channelsUplinkPhysical
channelsPRACHPUSCHPUCCH
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

14


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
LTE Uplink Logical Channels

.real-time and embedded systems
.Channel for transmitting control information between UEs
and network.
.This channel is used for UEs having no RRC connection with
the network.
Common Control
Channel
(CCCH)
.A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits
dedicated control information between a UE and the
network.
.Used by UEs having an RRC connection.
Dedicated Control
Channel
(DCCH)
.A point-to-point channel, dedicated to one UE, for the
transfer of user information.
.A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink.
Dedicated Traffic
Channel
(DTCH)
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

15


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
LTE Uplink Transport

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Channels

.Channel carries minimal information
.Transmissions on the channel may be lost due to
collisions
Random
Access
Channel
(RACH)
.Optional support for beam forming
.Supports dynamic link adaptation by varying the
transmit power and potentially modulation and coding
.Supports Hybrid ARQ
.Supports dynamic and semi-static resource allocation
Uplink Shared
Channel
(UL-SCH)
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc. 16

EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
LTE Uplink Physical

.systems engineering
.real-time and embedded systems
Channels

.Carries the random access preamble
.The random access preambles are generated from Zadoff-Chu
sequences with zero correlation zone, generated from one or several
root Zadoff-Chu sequences.
Physical Radio
Access Channel
(PRACH)
.Carries the UL-SCH
.QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM Modulation
Physical Uplink
Shared Channel
(PUSCH)
.Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs in response to downlink transmission
.Carries Scheduling Request (SR)
.Carries CQI reports
.BPSK and QPSK Modulation
Packet Uplink
Control Channel
(PUCCH)
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc. 17

EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
RNTI Mapping

.real-time and embedded systems
.
When MAC uses the PDCCH to indicate radio resource
allocation, the RNTI that is mapped on the PDCCH
depends on the logical channel type:
DTCCH
and DTCH
C-RNTI
Temporary
C-RNTI
Semi
Persistent
C-RNTI
PCCH
P-RNTI
RA Resp.
on DL-SCH
RA-RNTI
CCCH
Temporary
C-RNTI
BCCH
SI-RNTI
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

18


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
Random Access Procedure

.real-time and embedded systems
Random Access Resource Selection

Select Random Access Preamble Determine the next available PRACH Sub-frame

Random Access Preamble Transmission


Set Preamble Target Power Ask Physical Layer to Transmit Preamble

Random Access Response Reception on PDCCH


Match the preamble to receive the
response
Apply the timing advance in the message Process uplink resource grant

Contention Resolution


Uplink control message is transmitted on the granted uplink The contention resolution timer is stopped when the lower
resource and the contention resolution timer is started layers indicate that the message has been acknowledged

ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

19


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
DL-SCH Data Transfer

.real-time and embedded systems
Downlink Assignment Received on PDCCH

Message indicates if there is transmission on the DLSCH
for the UE.
New Data Indicator (NDI) is updated

Hybrid ARQ Operation


If received NDI != previous NDI or first transmission: If received NDI == previous NDI:
Soft buffer contents are replaced with new data Soft buffer data is chase combined with the new data

Data Delivery and Acknowledgement


If data in the Soft buffer is successfully decoded and If data decoding in the Soft buffer results in an error, a
no error is detected, send positive acknowledgement negative acknowledgement is sent.

ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

20


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
UL-SCH Data Transfer

.real-time and embedded systems
UE transmits the uplink data on the assigned resources. Hybrid ARQ is used.
Uplink Grant assigns uplink resources for transmission
Power Headroom Report (PHR) communicates the additional return power available at the UE.
Buffer Status Report (BSR) is sent to report pending data in uplink buffers.
Scheduling Request (SR) is sent to initiate uplink data transfer.
ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

21


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
Explore More

.real-time and embedded systems
Specification Title
3GPP TS 36.300 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN);
Overall description; Stage 2

3GPP TS 36.321 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Medium
Access Control (MAC) protocol specification
3GPP TS 36.211 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical
channels and modulation

ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

22


EventHelix.com

.telecommunication design
.systems engineering
Thank You

.real-time and embedded systems
Thank you for visiting EventHelix.com. The following links provide more
information about telecom design tools and techniques:

Links Description
EventStudio System Designer 4.0 Sequence diagram based systems engineering
tool.

VisualEther Protocol Analyzer 1.0 Wireshark based visual protocol analysis and
system design reverse engineering tool.
Telecom Call Flows GSM, SIP, H.323, ISUP, LTE and IMS call flows.
TCP/IP Sequence Diagrams TCP/IP explained with sequence diagrams.
Real-time and Embedded System
Articles
Real-time and embedded systems, call flows and
object oriented design articles.

ⓒ 2009 EventHelix.com Inc.

23
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