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MSF LTE Interoperability
April 30, 2010 | By MSF
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MSF(MultiService Forum) 문서로, Vodafone과 China Mobile이 독일과 중국에 test site를 구축하여 multi-vendor 장비로 LTE/EPC interoperabilty를 test 한 시나리오 및 결과입니다.

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Transcript
MSF LTE Interoperability

Multivendor testing in global
Evolved Packet Core Networks


Page 1


Abstract

This white paper provides a summary of the MultiService Forum’s (MSF) Global LTE
Interoperability event which took place from March 15-30, 2010.

The LTE Interoperability Event is designed to test standards compliance of Evolved
Packet Core network scenarios of interest to major Service Providers, and to gauge
vendor support for this technology. Building on the success of previous Global MSF
Interoperability (GMI) events, the LTE Interoperability event provided the first global
“real network” multi-vendor trial of the Evolved Packet Core infrastructure.

Incorporating the Evolved Packet Core defined within the Third Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 8 (R8) standards, the MSF architecture
introduced new access tiles to support LTE access and non-3GPP (specifically
eHRPD) access to EPC. The IMS core network provided the application layer for
which services may be deployed, and the binding of Quality of Service utilizing the
Policy and Charging Control (PCC) for the bearer.

The event demonstrated that most of the defined LTE/EPC interfaces were mature
and interoperable; however limited backwards compatibility between different
implementations of 3GPP Release 8 specifications did create some issues. The fact
that 3GPP does not require backward compatibility is a known limitation, but it is
important to understand that this is limiting interoperability with commercially
available equipment. Service providers will need to factor this into vendor selection.
Highlights of the event included:-

.
Sessions were successfully established via LTE access to EPC, with creation
of default and dedicated bearers with appropriate Quality of Service applied.
.
An end-to-end IMS Voice over LTE session was also successfully
demonstrated,
.
Access to the EPC via a simulated eHRPD access was successfully tested.
.
Handover between LTE and eHRPD,
.
Roaming was successfully tested.
Though the essential standards are reasonably mature, the implementation of early
versions of the standards within several of the available implementations of network
nodes highlights the problems that can arise due to non-backwards compatibility
between 3GPP releases. It is also clear that early implementations have focused
initially on development of LTE access to EPC and that support for legacy access
(2G/3G) to EPC is somewhat behind. Events such as the MSF LTE Interoperability
event highlight these issues and prove the validity of the MSF approach to achieving
multi-vendor interoperability.

Page 2


Contents
Executive summary p. 4

The MultiService Forum (MSF) p. 4
The LTE Interoperability Event p. 4
Key Objectives of the LTE Interoperability Event p. 4
Key Statistics p. 6
Key Results p. 6

Introduction p. 7

Part I: Participants and Planning p. 9

Host Sites p. 9
Vodafone p. 10
China Mobile p. 10
Vendor Participants p. 10
Part II: LTE Interoperability Execution p. 12

The Five Network Test Scenarios p. 13

Test Scenario Validation p. 15

Part III: Results and Issues p. 16

Future Work p. 22

Appendix A: The Five Test Scenarios p. 24

Scenario 1 . Basic Attachment p. 24
Scenario 2 . Roaming p. 28
Scenario 3 . non-LTE Access p. 32
Scenario 4 . Handover p. 36
Scenario 5 . Robustness p. 40
Appendix B: Interfaces Tested p. 45

Appendix C: The Benefits of MSF Membership p. 46

Appendix D: Participants in the LTE Interoperability Event p. 48

Page 3


Executive Summary
The MultiService Forum (MSF)


The MSF is a global association with a membership that includes the world’s leading
Internet Protocol (IP) communications companies. The MSF promotes the testing of
interoperability based on open standards within a defined end-to-end architecture.
The established Global MSF Interoperability (GMI) events are now being
complemented by more technically focused test events. The LTE Interoperability
Event being is the first example of a focused test event of this nature.

The LTE Interoperability Event

The LTE Interoperability Event is designed to test standards compliance of Evolved
Packet Core network scenarios of interest to major Service Providers, and to gauge
vendor support for this technology. Building on the success of previous Global MSF
Interoperability (GMI) events, the LTE Interoperability event provided the first global
“real network” multi-vendor trial of the Evolved Packet Core infrastructure.

Extending the IMS compliant MSF R4 architecture, the MSF defined:

1.
LTE Access Tile based on Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
Release 8 (R8) Evolved Packet Core standards, and
2.
eHRPD Access Tile based on Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
Release 8 (R8) Evolved Packet Core standards,
Interoperability testing was conducted in 2 labs; the Vodafone Test and Innovation
Centre in Dusseldorf and the CMCC Research Lab in Beijing. The two labs were
interconnected via a VPN. Conducting the tests in two interconnected labs made it
possible to test more vendor combinations, and also allowed realistic testing of
important roaming scenarios.

A total of 95 test cases were written across 5 scenarios. The scenarios were as
follows:

.
Scenario 1 . Basic Interoperability,
.
Scenario 2 . Roaming,
.
Scenario 3 . non-LTE access to the EPC,
.
Scenario 4 - Handover,
.
Scenario 5 . Robustness testing.
Key Objectives of the LTE Interoperability Event

The Evolved Packet Core (EPC) provides a comprehensive architecture that allows
users to connect to the network via the LTE high-speed wireless access. This allows
access to the applications and services that today\'s sophisticated users demand,
while providing the necessary Quality of Service management and mobility functions.

Page 4


The Evolved Packet Core has the following components:

.
The Mobility Management Entity (MME) which is the heart of the control plane
and session management functions. It also manages complex features such
as resource allocation and bearer control for multiple nodes and gateways.
.
The Serving Gateway (SGW) which routes data packets through the access
network;
.
The Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW) which acts as the on-ramp and
off-ramp to the Internet and other IP networks; and
.
The Home Subscriber Server (HSS), 3GPP AAA (Interworking), and Policy
Controller (PCRF) which together form the central control point and include
the main repository for subscriber information. They also provide
authorization, authentication and critical accounting functions for services,
enable interworking between LTE and non-3GPP networks for a seamless
subscriber experience, and apply policies to manage network resources,
applications, devices, and subscribers.
It is vital that operators have confidence in the multi-vendor interoperability of EPC
components before volume deployment can begin. Demonstrating this capability in
action was a key overarching objective of the LTE Interoperability Event. The
following equipment types (and associated vendor instances) participated in the
event:

.
In Germany, the equipment types included UE (1), eNodeB (1), MME (3),
SGW (3), PGW (3) , PCRF (2), HSS (2), 3GPP AAA (1), HSGW (1) & IMS
Core (1).
.
In China, the equipment types included UE (1), eNodeB (1), MME\'s (4), SGW
(4), PGW (4), PCRF (2), & HSS (2).
In addition, the LTE Interoperability Event was designed to:

.
Validate the maturity of EPC network interfaces to enable multi-vendor support.
.
Demonstrate that an EPC network can manage session control with an applied
Quality of Service for default and dedicated bearers.
.
Demonstrate the support for user roaming between different networks.
.
Demonstrate support for access to EPC networks via legacy access technology
(e.g. 2G/3G)
.
Demonstrate support for access to EPC networks via eHRPD access technology
.
Demonstrate the Handover capability between the following access technologies:
o
LTE access - LTE access
o
LTE access - 2G Access
o
LTE access - 3G Access
o
LTE access -eHRPD Access
.
Demonstrate the Robustness capability of EPC network nodes
Page 5


Key Statistics

The LTE Interoperability Event was held from March 15-30, 2010, and involved two
major Service Providers; China Mobile in Beijing and Vodafone in Dusseldorf.

Over 40 network components from 8 participating vendors were tested by 50 test
engineers using approximately 300 pages of test plans during this 12-day event.

The five physical scenarios incorporated a total of 95 test cases. Taking account of
different vendor combinations, the 95 defined tests resulted in a total of 550
scheduled tests being defined. Of the 550 defined tests, a total of 253 were executed
of which 234 tests were successfully completed and 19 failed. In those cases where
defined tests were not run, it was due to a combination of lab configuration
limitations, equipment limitations or lack of time. Appendix A gives a detailed
summary of the test results.

Key Results

.
This test event showed that basic interoperability is achievable between the
different nodes from the vendors participating in this event.
.
Successful testing of Roaming Interfaces and Protocols (Diameter S6a, GTPv2 S8)
was achieved between the labs in Germany and China.
.
The event showed that implementations based on different versions of the 3GPP
Release 8 specifications are not fully interoperable, as there are backward
incompatible protocol versions (especially observed for GTPv2)
.
This event was scheduled quite early in the vendor implementation cycle and
therefore not all specified features were supported in vendor products (e.g. MME
pooling). In particular, the limitations on the UE side (e.g. GERAN/UTRAN and
eHRPD) and the interworking with legacy systems are not fully implemented in
currently available products.
.
The tested UE\'s (USB dongles) were stable, and provide an appropriate UE for
interoperability events.
.
Interaction with service layer (e.g. IMS) was successfully demonstrated, with
binding of Quality of Service to EPC bearers utilising Policy and Charging Control
(PCC)
.
End to End IMS Voice calls were achieved over LTE Access,
.
eHRPD testing was performed and handover was achieved between LTE and
eHRPD,
.
The commercial test tools used provided uncompromising visibility to all End2End
procedures allowing rapid analysis (JDSU) and the ability to test the robustness of
the various networks nodes (Codenomicon).
Page 6


Introduction

The LTE Interoperability Event test environment was based on:

(1) Proving multivendor interoperability of Evolved Packet Core network nodes;
(2) QoS control as an essential underpinning for services using PCC architecture and
binding to the application layer in IMS;
(3) Access to EPC via legacy technology (2G/3G) and non 3GPP technology
(eHRPD) . including Handover between LTE and legacy access.
(4) Roaming between EPC capable networks
(5) Robustness testing of EPC network nodes
Publishing the results of the LTE Interoperability Event provides valuable feedback to
the industry as a whole. Based on tests carried out in real world networked
scenarios, specific feedback was also provided to the Standards Development
Organization (SDO) community.

The key relationship between the MSF and relevant standards bodies is illustrated in
Figure 1. As can be seen, there is a virtuous circle between testing based on the
MSF architectural framework and IA’s, and the feedback provided to the SDOs.


Figure 1. The results from the testing and interoperability programs are fed

back to the relevant standards bodies, i.e. there is a virtual circle.

This white paper is organized into three parts and three appendices. In Part I, the
planning that went into the LTE Interoperability Event is discussed. Part II
discusses the two-week event, while Part III discusses the key results obtained
from the LTE Interoperability Event.

Appendix A provides more details on the five test scenarios; Appendix B highlights
the interfaces that were tested, Appendix C discusses the benefits of MSF

Page 7


membership and Appendix D provides a brief resume of the participating
companies.

Page 8


Part I: Participants and Planning

The LTE Interoperability Event involved a diverse group of IP communications
professionals whose common goal was to test the current capabilities of LTE and
EPC products operating in real world Service Provider environments. This testing
allowed vendors to improve their products, Service Providers to accelerate their
service deployment strategies, and the MSF to identify standards shortfalls to the
appropriate SDO\'s.

A two-week test event involving two inter-networked lab sites, 8 vendors, over 50
participants, 40 components and 290+ pages of test plans requires careful planning.
A dedicated committee of 9 people, along with numerous volunteers, spent over 18
months preparing for the event.

Planning for the LTE Interoperability Event began in January 2009 by identifying
scenarios and tests for the event. The scope of the event is defined in the Physical
Scenarios document MSF-EPS-LTE-SCN-002-FINAL which is publicly available at
http://www.msforum.org/techinfo/approved.shtml. A total of 4 scenarios were initially
defined covering basic interoperability, roaming, non-LTE access and handover.
Each of the 4 main scenarios included a number of sub-scenarios. A fifth scenario
was subsequently added to cover robustness testing. Test plans were developed for
the majority of the identified sub-scenarios. During event planning, it became clear
that commercial equipment was unlikely to be available with the functionality required
for all test scenarios. Effort was focussed on the highest priority tests, and in some
cases it was decided to postpone the writing of the test cases. The deferred test
cases will be completed before a phase 2 test event is held. .

Inter-lab testing was a key objective of the LTE Interoperability Event, but the initial
activity focused on testing permutations of vendor-provided EPC technology within
each lab. Testing between labs focused on tests where inter lab testing reflected
real world deployment scenarios (e.g. roaming). Given the complexity of the event
and to help prioritize demand, the LTE Planning Committee developed a test
schedule acceptable to all participants. The HP Quality Centre tool was used as a
scheduling tool.

In addition to test planning, host site selection, preparation and network
interconnectivity needed to be completed before the start of testing. Biweekly LTE
Planning Committee meetings were held and a number of vendor participation calls
kept the participants informed of the preparation progress and their needed inputs
and activities. Preparation activities peaked the week before the LTE Interoperability
Event started, as participant engineers arrived at the host sites to ensure that the
components were installed so that testing could commence on time.

Host Sites

Vodafone and CMCC provided host sites in Germany and China respectively,
thereby allowing the various tests and scenarios to be deployed in an environment
that replicates a live global network. In the LTE Interoperability Event, however,
there were no subscribers; instead engineers made extensive use of test tools and
emulation to actively monitor product performance and track, identify and fix issues.

Page 9


Testing was structured to enable both intra-site and inter-site testing, with each host
site first carrying out testing against up to five scenarios in isolation before carrying
out collaborative networked testing with the other lab.

Vodafone

Vodafone provided the host site at the Test and Innovation Centre in Dusseldorf,
Germany. The availability of the other site in China provided the opportunity for the
LTE Interoperability Event to prove \"real-life\" roaming and nomadic scenarios that
would not be possible in single lab test events. The Vodafone site was able to
demonstrate multi-vendor interoperability of EPC elements, and successfully utilised
an IMS service layer to provide dynamic creation of a dedicated bearer via PCC for
an end-to-end voice session. In addition, eHRPD access was verified with specific
interest from Verizon who were in attendance on-site.

China Mobile

China Mobile provided the host site at the CMCC Research Lab in Beijing, China.
The LTE Interoperability Event allowed China Mobile to establish a test network with
the other host-site and establish a ”real-life” roaming and nomadic environment. The
China Mobile site was able to demonstrate multi-vendor interoperability of EPC
elements utilising the Policy and Charging Control infrastructure to bind in Quality of
Service management,.

Vendor Participants

Eight companies participated in the LTE Interoperability Event:

o
The network equipment vendors were Alcatel Lucent, Bridgewater Systems,
Cisco/Starent Networks, Huawei Technologies, NEC, and the ZTE
Corporation.
o
The test equipment vendors were JDSU (network protocol and call-flow
analysis . formerly part of Agilent’s Network Solutions Division recently
acquired by JDSU) and Codenomicon (network protocol simulator).
Tables 1 and 2 show the components provided by the vendor participants at the
Dusseldorf and Beijing sites respectively.

Vendor LTE
UE
eNodeB MME SGW PGW PCRF HSS 3GPP
AAA
Server
IMS
Core
Access
Simulator
(eHRPD)
HSGW
Robustness
Test Suite
Test
Equipment
JDSU X
Bridgewater
Systems
X X X
Starent/Cisco X X X X X X
Codenomicon X
NEC X X X
ZTE X X X X X X X

Table 1. The LTE Interoperability vendor participants in the Vodafone host-site in Dusseldorf,
Germany.

Page 10


.


Vendor LTE
UE
eNodeB MME SGW PGW PCRF HSS IMS
Core
Access
Simulator
(eHRPD)
HSGW
Robustness
Test Suite
Test
Equipment
JDSU X
Alcatel-
Lucent
X X X X
Starent/Cisco X X X
Codenomicon X
Huawei X X X X X X
ZTE X X X X X

Table 2. The LTE Interoperability vendor participants in the China Mobile host-site in Beijing
China

Page 11


Part II: The LTE Interoperability Event Execution

The LTE Interoperability Event involved two major Service Providers, one based in
China, and the other in Europe. The test scenarios involved the connection of the
host labs: connected using an IP Security (IPSec) Virtual Private Network (VPN).
The IPSec VPN tunnel was established and maintained to provide full connectivity
between the two sites for the duration of testing.

Figure 2 presents a high-level diagram of the test environment used for the Vodafone
Dusseldorf host-site.

ZTE eNB 2.6
UE
eHRPD simulator
Starent
IMS Starent
SGi
ZTE eNB 2.6GHz
S6a
S101
UE
MME STA
MME NEC
MME ZTE
S-GW STA
S-GW NEC
S-GW ZTE
HSS BWC HSS ZTE
P-GW STA
P-GW NEC
P-GW ZTE
PCRF BWC PCRF ZTE
IP VPN
S1 UP
S1 CP
S11
S5
Gx
Rx
S8
S6a
S9
S10
X2
Figure 2 is a high-level view of the Vodafone, Dusseldorf test environment.

Figure 3 presents a high-level diagram of the test environment used for the China
Mobile, Beijing host-site.

Page 12


HSS HUA HSS ZTE S9 A HSS ZTE S9

Figure 3 is a high-level view of China Mobile, Beijing test environment.
P-GW STA
P-GW ALU
P-GW ZTE
SGi Huawei eNB
S6a
UE
MME STA
MME ALU
MME ZTE
S-GW STA
S-GW ALU
S-GW ZTE
PCRF HUA
IP VPN
S1 UP
S1 CP
S11
S5
Gx
S8
S6a
S10
PCRF ZTE PCRF ALU
The LTE Interoperability network used a different technical solution to that of most
previous MSF test events. For the initial events, connectivity was provided using
dedicated leased lines between each of the sites, with core routers enabling
interconnection. This provided a highly reliable infrastructure, but it had two key
disadvantages: it was very expensive, and it did not provide the flexibility possible
with VPNs. GMI2008 tried a new technique, using VPN tunnels instead of dedicated
leased lines. This was highly successful, and the LTE Interoperability Event used the
same technique.

The use of a flexible VPN provided important advantages. It allowed each site to
give participating vendors remote access to their equipment during the event. This
was an important capability because it allowed vendors to complement onsite staff
with personnel at home locations. The ability to support secure access from remote
locations enhances flexibility and reduces cost for vendors.

The Five Network Test Scenarios

Figure 4 is a high-level view of the EPC framework. The EPC network provides
capabilities to attach multiple access technologies into a single core network
infrastructure. These include LTE, legacy wireless access technologies (2G/3G),
non-3GPP wireless access (e.g. eHRPD), and fixed access. The common
infrastructure provides a converged way to access a common service layer (e.g.
Internet, IMS) and apply a consistent method of Quality of Service management and
mobility management.

Page 13


Internet
E-UTRAN
Evolved
Packet
Core
SC
MM
AAA
Policy
Access
System
IMS
. .
Evolved
Packet
Core. .
Non 3GPP
3GPP
Legacy
System . . .
Internet
E-UTRAN
Evolved
Packet
Core
SC
MM
AAA
Policy
Access
System
IMS
. .
Evolved
Packet
Core. .
Non 3GPP
3GPP
Legacy
System . . .
Figure 4 shows how the Evolved Packet Core can be accessed using all mainstream
wireline and wireless access technologies, for connection to the application/service
layer (e.g. IMS, Internet).

This high-level architecture formed the basis of the five scenarios for the LTE
Interoperability Event. These scenarios were:

.
Scenario 1 - Basic Interoperability . focused on three main areas
o
Attachment of an LTE capable UE to the Evolved Packet Core via an
eNodeB and creation a default bearer with related Quality of Service
applied utilising PCC architecture. Tracking Area Updates, IMS Session
establishment utilising a dedicated bearer with related Quality of Service
applied utilising PCC architecture were also tested.
o
MME Pooling
o
SGW Selection
.
Scenario 2 . Roaming:
o
Roaming with Home Routed Traffic
o
Roaming with Local Breakout in visited network (Home P-CSCF)
o
Roaming with Local Breakout in visited network (Visited P-CSCF)
.
Scenario 3 . non-LTE Access to EPC:
o
Legacy wireless access technology (2G/3G) with legacy SGSN
o
Legacy wireless access technology (2G/3G) with S4-SGSN
Page 14


o
Non-3GPP access technology; both trusted (eHRPD) and non-trusted
(fixed)
.
Scenario 4 - Handover:
o
S1 and X2 based Handover between eNodeB\'s.
o
Inter-RAT Handover between LTE and legacy wireless technology (2G/3G)
o
Handover between LTE and non-3GPP wireless technology (eHRPD)
.
Scenario 5 - Robustness:
o
SGW and PGW testing of receiving malformed GTPv2 packets
o
SGW and PGW testing of receiving malformed PMIP packets
These scenarios are discussed in more detail in Appendix A.
Test scenario validation

The JDSU Signalling Analyzer solution, in a multi-user setup, was used to validate
the completed test scenarios at both the Vodafone and China Mobile sites. This
multi-user setup provided the participants of the Interoperability Event a real-time end
to end view of the test scenarios as they where being executed.

The Signalling Analyzer provided a number of key capabilities:-

.
End to End EPC and IMS Core Network Sub-System Visibility
.
Real-Time Multiple Interface end to end Call Session Correlation and
Measurements
.
Real-time control-plane and user-plane correlation
.
Access to common data source (probe) with the ability to perform
independent functions/operations
.
LTE/SAE security - EPS real time NAS Encryption deciphering
.
Generic file sharing of the test scenarios results (both in JDSU proprietary
format and Wireshark .pcap format)
The Signalling Analyzer supports an extensive set of LTE/EPC/2G/3G interfaces and
is able to validate the outcome of the test case in real-time. After the validation of
each individual test scenario the trace file was saved for possible future reference
and traceability.

Page 15


Part III: Results and Issues

During the event it was observed that most of the defined interfaces were mature and
interoperable, however the lack of backwards compatibility between different
versions of 3GPP Release 8 specifications did cause some issues. Some vendors
implemented early versions of the Release 8 specification (based on March 2009),
and these early versions were not fully interoperable with equipment based on the
latter versions of Release 8 specifications (June 2009).

Sessions were successfully established via LTE access to EPC, with creation of
default and dedicated bearers with related Quality of Service applied. An end-to-end
IMS Voice over LTE session was also successfully demonstrated, as well as access
to the EPC via a simulated eHRPD access and handover between eHRPD and LTE.
Roaming was also successfully tested.

Though essential standards are reasonably mature, the implementation of early
versions of the standards within network nodes highlights the non-backwards
compatibility issue. Service Providers will need to take care to clearly specify which
version of the Release 8 specification they are deploying. It is also clear that
implementations have focused initially on development of LTE access to EPC and
that legacy access (2G/3G) to EPC is somewhat behind. Events such as the MSF
LTE Interoperability event highlight such difficulties and prove the validity of the MSF
approach to achieving multi-vendor interoperability.

It is anticipated that backwards compatibility issues will be resolved as all nodes and
interfaces are aligned to the newly agreed baseline of 3GPP Release 8 Dec-2009. In
addition, the view is that 3GPP Release 9 will be backwards compatible with this
baseline release. The accuracy of this claim may be validated at subsequent
Interoperability events.

Scenario 1 . Basic Interoperability:

In this scenario, intra-network testing utilised a single EPC architecture created using
components from different vendors. Testing included attachment and detachment
from the network, Tracking Area Update, IP-CAN session establishment, SIP
registration (to IMS), SIP session establishment, MME pooling and SGW Selection.
This was broken down into three sub-scenarios listed below.

Scenario 1a . Basic Interoperability with basic network configuration:

This scenario demonstrated that basic interoperability in a LTE network consisting of
equipment from different infrastructure vendors worked properly over the applicable
3GPP standardized interfaces. The demonstrated functionality includes UE
registration with the network, data session establishment and termination, as well as
UE tracking area update. In addition, the testing also successfully demonstrated the
following IMS interworking:

.
IMS UA Registration via LTE UE . including interacting with PCC to allow the
service layer to be notified of change of default bearer status.
.
IMS Session Establishment/Termination between IMS UA\'s on two LTE UE\'s
. including interacting with PCC to dynamically creating a dedicated bearer
with associated Quality of Service
Page 16


Although basic interoperability was achieved, it was noted that implementations
based on different versions of the Rel-8 GTPv2 protocol are not backwards
compatible (i.e. March 09 and June 09).

Scenario 1b . Basic Interoperability with MME Pooling

This scenario extended the basic architecture in order to demonstrate MME Pooling
and test the interoperability of the pooling function. Although test plans were
completed to cover this specific scenario, the MME pooling function was not yet
supported by the eNodeB and MME vendors. It is therefore concluded that it is too
early to test MME Pooling as the implementations are not yet ready for this feature.

Scenario 1c . SGW Selection

This scenario extended the basic architecture in order to demonstrate SGW
Selection and to test the interoperability of the selection function. LTE Attachments
were performed with different multi-vendor configurations, thus concluding that basic
interoperability of SGW Selection was successfully achieved.

Scenario 2 - Roaming:

This scenario focussed on the different roaming scenarios between Dusseldorf and
Beijing. This included the home routed traffic model and the local breakout model
with both home and visited operator applications. Testing included attachment and
detachment from the network, IP-CAN session establishment, SIP registration (to
IMS), and SIP session establishment. This scenario was broken down into the
following 3 sub-scenarios.

Scenario 2a . Home Routed Traffic

This scenario was configured as an inter-site test with the subscriber roaming in a
\'visited network\'. The LTE UE, eNodeB, MME, and SGW were physically in the
visited network whilst the PGW, PCRF, HSS were physically located in the Home
Network. The testing included the attachment and detachment from the UE in the
visited network to the home network. No issues were raised during the tests
between Beijing and Dusseldorf in the multi-vendor configuration and therefore
interoperability was successfully achieved.

Further testing included the SIP registration (to IMS) and SIP session establishment.
As the IMS Core was only present in the Dusseldorf site, and the UE simulator in the
Beijing site could not support an IMS User Agent, all related IMS tests were
performed within the Dusseldorf lab which was configured as two separate networks.
These tests were also successfully executed.

Scenario 2b . Local Breakout (Home Network P-CSCF)

This scenario was designed as an inter-site test with the subscriber roaming in a
\'visited network\'. The LTE UE, eNodeB, MME, SGW, PGW and V-PCRF were
physically in the visited network whilst the H-PCRF and HSS were physically located
in the Home Network. The IMS Core, including P-CSCF, was configured in the home
network.

The focus of these tests was to verify the PCRF interaction across the S9 interface.
Test plans were completed to cover this scenario; however as support of the S9

Page 17


interface within the PCRF nodes was not available the tests could not be executed. It
is concluded that it is too early to test the S9 interface as the implementations of
PCRF\'s are not yet ready for this feature.

Scenario 2c . Local Breakout (Visited Network P-CSCF)

This scenario was designed as an inter-site test with the subscriber roaming in a
\'visited network\'. The LTE UE, eNodeB, MME, SGW, PGW and V-PCRF were
physically in the visited network whilst the H-PCRF and HSS were physically located
in the Home Network. Whilst the IMS Core was configured in the home network, the
P-CSCF was configured in the Visited Network.

The focus of these tests was to verify the PCRF interaction across the S9 interface
and interaction between the PCRF and P-CSCF in the visited domain over the Rx
interface. Test plans were completed to cover this scenario; however as the support
of the S9 interface within the PCRF nodes was not available the tests could not be
executed. It is concluded that it is too early to test the S9 interface as the
implementations of PCRF\'s are not yet ready for this feature.

Scenario 3 . non-LTE Access to EPC:

This scenario was designed to validate the use of a range of non-LTE access
technologies that can be used to connect to the Enhanced Packet Core. The design
focussed on the ‘legacy’ 3GPP access types (e.g. 2G and 3G) that are used to
access the Evolved Packet Core. In addition the non-3GPP access technologies,
trusted (eHRPD) and non-trusted (fixed) were also designed to access the Evolved
Packet Core.

In the early planning stages it was recognized that initial product developments were
likely to focus on access via the EPC Mobility Management Entity (MME), with
support for other access technologies being deferred till later product releases. As a
result, testing priority was given to LTE access. However, the testing scenarios for
alternative access technologies were left in the test plan in anticipation of a potential
phase 2 interoperability event.

This scenario is broken down into the following 4 sub-scenarios.

Scenario 3a - Non-LTE Access (via S4-SGSN)

The focus of testing for this scenario was to access the EPC over legacy 2G/3G
wireless networks via an S4 SGSN.

Based on discussions with vendors, it emerged that S4-SGSNs were not mature
enough in their development for testing in time for this interoperability event. The
initial focus for product development has been on MME’s. These test plans were
thus postponed. However, this is seen as an important area, and it is expected that
products will be available in time for a possible phase 2 interoperability event.

Scenario 3b - Non-LTE Access (via Release 8 Legacy SGSN)

The focus of testing for this scenario was to access the EPC over legacy 2G/3G
wireless networks via Release 8 Legacy SGSN.

Based on discussions with vendors, it emerged that Release 8 Legacy SGSNs were
not mature enough in their development for testing in time for this interoperability
event. The initial focus for product development has been on MME’s. These test

Page 18


plans were thus postponed. However, this is seen as an important area, and it is
expected that products will be available in time for a possible phase 2 interoperability
event.

Scenario 3c - Non-LTE Access (via non-3GPP Access)

The focus of testing for this scenario was to access the EPC over non-3GPP access
technologies. This scenario included trusted non-3GPP access (e.g. Femto cell) as
well as non-trusted non-3GPP access (e.g. WiFi).

The full test plan for this interoperability event included both non-LTE and non-3GPP
access technologies. However, it was determined that this sub-scenario was of
relatively low priority and thus the test plans were postponed. This sub-scenario
could be tested in a future phase 2 interoperability event.

Scenario 3d . Non LTE eHRPD Access.

This scenario focussed on validating IP-CAN Session Establishment and IMS
Registration and Session Establishment from an eHRPD access technology using
S2a, Gxa, STa and S6b interfaces. This involved the following core network
components . HSS, 3GPP AAA, MME, and HSGW. Only one HSS and 3GPP AAA
Server provided support for this scenario.

The test cases for IP-CAN Session Establishment were successfully executed,
Further testing, including IMS UE Registration and Session Establishment, were not
executed due to limitations of the test environment and time constraints. In
conclusion the basic interoperability for non-LTE access via eHRPD was successfully
demonstrated.

Scenario 4 - Handover:

This scenario was designed to validate the different handover cases. The primary
focus included Intra-Radio Access Technology handover for LTE; including S1-based
handover, X2-based handover, and MME/SGW relocation. Secondly, the handover
mechanism between LTE and ‘legacy’ 3GPP access types (e.g. 2G and 3G) was
designed to be tested. Finally, the non-3GPP access technologies (trusted .
eHRPD) were also designed to be tested for handover to/from LTE.

In the early planning stages it was recognized that initial product developments were
likely to focus on access via the EPC Mobility Management Entity (MME), with
support for other access technologies being deferred till later releases. As a result,
testing priority was given to LTE access. However, the testing scenarios for
alternative access technologies were left in the test plan in anticipation of a potential
phase 2 interoperability event.

This scenario is broken down into the following 3 sub-scenarios.

Scenario 4a - Handovers (Intra-LTE, 2G/3G via S4-SGSN)

The focus of testing for this scenario was two-fold:-

1.
Demonstrate handover between LTE access (S1-based, X2-based,
MME/SGW Relocation).
2.
Demonstrate handover between LTE access and legacy 2G/3G wireless
access with an S4- SGSN.
Page 19


X2-based handover tests were successfully executed, although there were some
limitations in the configuration of the test environment limiting the execution of some
tests due to difficulty in triggering the correct radio conditions.

S1-based Handover and SGW/MME relocation were successfully executed with a

level of basic interoperability achieved. However issues were raised with GTPv2

due to backwards incompatibility of implementations based on different 3GPP

Release 8 versions (March 2009 . June 2009). These were as follows:-

.
S11 interface (MME to SGW) -Indication Flags are not set by the MME
.
S10 interface (MME to MME) . Forward Relocation Request message
(invalid length of AUTN parameter in MM Context)
Based on discussions with vendors, it emerged that S4- SGSNs were not mature
enough in their development for Interoperability Testing in time for this
interoperability event. The initial focus for product development has been on MME’s.
However, this is seen as an important area, and it is expected that products will be
available in time for a possible phase 2 interoperability event.

Scenario 4b - Handovers (2G/3G via Release 8 Legacy SGSN)

The focus of testing for this scenario was to demonstrate handover between LTE
access and legacy 2G/3G wireless access with Release 8 Legacy SGSN.

Based on discussions with vendors, it emerged that Release 8 Legacy SGSNs were
not mature enough in their development for testing in time for this interoperability
event. The creation of these test plans was thus postponed. The initial focus for
product development has been on MME’s. However, this is seen as an important
area, and it is expected that products will be available in time for a possible phase 2
interoperability event.

Scenario 4c - Handovers (non-3GPP eHRPD Access)

This scenario focussed on validating the eHRPD to LTE Handover mechanism. This
involved the following components . HSS, 3GPP AAA, MME, HSGW. It was noted
that only one HSS and 3GPP AAA Server were supported the related interfaces.
However, these tests successfully demonstrated the non-optimized handover
between LTE and eHRPD using GTPv2. As a result, the interoperability of the STa,
S6a, S5, S8 and S11 interfaces was proven.

The remaining test cases, which were related to optimized handover and PMIP,
could not be executed due to limitations of the test environment.

Scenario 5 - Robustness:

Robustness testing is based on the systematic creation of a very large number of
protocol messages (tens or hundreds of thousands) that contain exceptional
elements simulating malicious attacks. This method provides a proactive way of
assessing software robustness, which, in turn, is defined as \"the ability of software to
tolerate exceptional input and stressful environment conditions\". A piece of software
which is not robust fails when facing such circumstances. A malicious intruder can
take advantage of robustness shortcomings to compromise the system running the
software. In fact, a large portion of the information security vulnerabilities reported in
public are caused by robustness weaknesses. Robustness problems can be
exploited, for example, by intruders seeking to cause a denial-of-service condition by

Page 20


feeding maliciously formatted inputs into the vulnerable component. Certain types of
robustness flaws (e.g., common buffer overflows) can also be exploited to run
externally supplied code on the vulnerable component.

Six different sub-scenarios were developed for the LTE IOT event, covering the
robustness testing of SGW and PGW:

.
S5a . Robustness testing for SGW S11 using GTPv2
.
S5b . Robustness testing for SGW S4 using GTPv2
.
S5c. Robustness testing for PGW S5 using GTPv2
.
S5d . Robustness testing for PGW S8 using GTPv2
.
S5e . Robustness testing for PGW S5 using PMIP
.
S5f . Robustness testing for PGW S8 using PMIP
Due to time constraints, only test scenario S5a, SGW S11 testing using GTPv2, was
executed. SGW’s from three different vendors were tested. Two SGW’s were tested
locally in Dusseldorf and 3rd one over VPN in Beijing site.

During the event, handling of malformed GTPv2-echo and GTPv2-create-sessionrequest
messages were tested against the all three SGW’s.

Analysis of test run and issues detected

Test scenario 5a was partially passed. For all three SGW’s, GTPv2-echo and
GTPv2-create-session-request messages were executed, representing ~10% of total
robustness test material available for S11 interface. Problems were identified in two
SGW’s. For both of the SGW’s, vulnerabilities were related to processing of GTPv2create-
session-request while GTPv2-echo passed cleanly. This is most likely due to
complexity of GTPv2-create-session-request compared to GTPv2-echo. This is
typical for protocol level vulnerabilities, i.e. number of issues tends to increase with
the increasing complexity. The found issues fall in two categories:

.
Crashing of SGW due to vulnerabilities in parsing anomalous content in
specific GTPv2 protocol fields. These issues lead to Denial of Service (DoS)
situation and can be triggered with a single input message.
.
DoS due to resource exhaustion. Problems in this category are caused by
cumulative effect of multiple consequent input messages containing
anomalous content. The exact nature of resource exhaustion in case of
SGW was not fully analyzed, but a typical cause is memory exhaustion.
With the third SGW, half an hour downtime was observed on two occasions. Since
this test was run remotely from Dusseldorf to Beijing, the reason could not be verified
and may have been caused by network level connectivity problems.

As a general observation, it was noted that two days allocated for robustness testing
was not sufficient. To mitigate this, a night run was added.

Scenario 5 Conclusions

LTE IOT event demonstrated that protocol level implementation problems can be
identified and fixed with the robustness testing. While the IOT events can’t

Page 21


necessarily facilitate 100% test coverage due to time constraints, an overview of
robustness and security issues is achieved. Expanding the testing for multiple
interfaces allows vendors and operators to prioritize security related testing and
development on interfaces that appear to be most vulnerable.

While robustness assessment is the main value of tests, some auxiliary results are
also provided. Protocol message level interoperability is one of these. Robustness
tester is not a conformance tester and therefore no conclusive verdicts can be given
if a device fails to respond to a message sent by test tool. However, indications about
the differences between devices can be observed. One valid interoperability bug,
where device sent Echo replies to the wrong port, was identified during the testing.
All the interoperability tests are based on valid messages/data sent by test tool.

Response times from the tested devices can also be estimated and compared with
the robustness test tool.

Future Work

Interest has been expressed on continuing work in this area by way of a phase 2

MSF LTE Interoperability Event.

The focus of such an event should initially be on the test cases that were not able

to be executed in this event. These are as follows:-

.
Scenario 1b (MME Pooling),
.
Scenario 2b (Local Break-out . Home P-CSCF),
.
Scenario 3a (Non-LTE Access via S4-SGSN),
.
Scenario 3b (Non-LTE Access via legacy SGSN),
.
Scenario 3c (Non-LTE Access via non 3GPP access),
.
Scenario 4a (2G/3G handover via S4-SGSN),
.
Sceanrio 4b (2G/3G handover via legacy SGSN),
.
Scenario 4c (eHRPD handover via S101 interface).
In addition, there are additional potential features that could also be part of a phase
2 LTE event:-

.
Further S1/X2 interface testing (including Automatic Neighbour Relation/Self
Organising Networks),
.
Emergency Call,
.
CS Fallback,
.
Idle-mode signalling reduction,
.
IMS Service Interaction,
.
Location Services,
.
Fixed broadband access to EPC
Page 22


The timeframe of a phase 2 LTE event would be dependent on availability of UEs
and network nodes supporting the required functionality as well as Service Provider
interest in seeing such functionality tested in a multi-vendor environment.

Page 23


Appendix A: The Five Test Scenarios

This appendix provides a detailed description of each of the 5 test scenarios and
presents the test results on a per-lab, per-scenario basis. When presenting the
results, the following category types are defined to define the results of the test cases
in the LTE Interoperability Event:-

.
Passed . Test case was scheduled to be run and Passed the criteria defined
within the Test Plan
.
Failed . Test case was scheduled to be run and Failed the criteria defined
within the Test Plan
.
Not Run . Test Case was scheduled to be run, however due to lack of time
this was not possible
.
N/A . Test Case was identified to be not applicable to be scheduled (e.g.
duplication of test case functionality)
.
Exempted . Test Case was scheduled to be run, however due to issues with
configuration or other limitations (UE and equipment restrictions) it was not
possible.
Scenario 1 . Basic Interoperability

Scenario 1 demonstrated the attachment and detachment from the network, Tracking
Area Update, IP-CAN session establishment, SIP registration (to IMS), SIP session
establishment, MME pooling and SGW Selection.

This scenario was broken down into three sub-scenarios that are detailed below.

Scenario 1a . Basic Attachment

IMS UA
MME
S-GW
HSS P-CSCF
P-GW
PCRF
UE
ENB
IMS Core
LTE-Uu
S-11
S5
Gx
SGi
Rx
S6a
S1-MME
S1-U
IMS UA
Figure 5 Scenario 1a Test Configuration- Basic Attachment.

The network architecture for scenario 1A is shown in Figure 5 above. The interfaces
for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. S1-MME, S1-U, S5, S11,
S6a, Gx and Rx). In some circumstances it was necessary to interoperate multiple of
the interfaces together rather than in isolation.

Page 24


Scenario 1a Objectives

1.
Demonstrates the ability to perform interworking between an eNB provided by
Vendor A and MME, S-GW and P-GW provided by Vendor B, by performing
UE Attach (IP-CAN Session Establishment), Tracking Area Update and UE
Detach (IP-CAN Session Tear Down)
2.
Demonstrates the ability to perform interworking between an eNB and MME
provided by Vendor A and S-GW, P-GW provided by Vendor B, by
performing UE Attach (IP-CAN Session Establishment), Tracking Area
Update and UE Detach (IP-CAN Session Tear Down)
3.
Demonstrates the ability to perform Interworking between a MME provided by
vendor A and a HSS provided by vendor B, by performing UE Attach (IP-CAN
Session Establishment) and UE Detach (IP-CAN Session Tear Down)
4.
Demonstrates the ability to perform Interworking between a S-GW provided
by vendor A and a P-GW provided by vendor B, by performing UE Attach (IPCAN
Session Establishment) and UE Detach (IP-CAN Session Tear Down)
5.
Demonstrates the ability to perform Interworking between a P-GW provided
by vendor A and a PCRF provided by vendor B, by performing UE Attach (IPCAN
Session Establishment) and UE Detach (IP-CAN Session Tear Down)
6.
Demonstrates the ability to perform Interworking between an IMS Core
provided by vendor A and a PCRF provided by vendor B:
a.
Via an LTE Attached UE performing an IMS Registration (IMS Session
Registration)
b.
Via an IMS registered LTE UE establishing an IMS Session (IMS
Session Establishment - initiated by LTE side)
c.
Via an IMS registered LTE UE terminating an IMS Session (IMS
Session Tear Down - initiated by LTE side).
d.
Via an IMS registered LTE UE establishing an IMS Session (IMS
Session Establishment - initiated by Core side)
e.
Via an IMS registered LTE UE terminating an IMS Session (IMS
Session Tear Down - initiated by Core side)
Scenario 1a Test Results and Observations

The Scenario 1a test plan defined 20 basic test cases. By pairing different vendors’
equipments in the various network configurations, the basic test cases were
expanded to 113 test case instances scheduled in the Vodafone Dusseldorf lab, and
127 test case instances scheduled in the CMCC Beijing lab. The Vodafone
Dusseldorf lab configuration included connections to one HSS and one S-GW
located in the CMCC Beijing lab.

The following table summarizes the test results.

No Run Passed N/A Failed Exempted Total Lab
7 74 21 4 7 113 Dusseldorf
21 95 0 11 0 127 Beijing

Table 3 Scenario 1a Test Results

Page 25


The “No run” test cases were largely due to lack of time to execute those test cases.

The “N/A” test cases were duplications of test cases already executed.

The “Failed” test cases were largely due to implementations based on different
versions of the Rel-8 GTPv2 protocol which were not backward compatible

The “Exempted” test cases were due to difficulty in maintaining UE in Idle state.

Several issues were encountered during Scenario 1a test execution:

.
Implementations based on different versions of the Rel-8 GTPv2 protocol are
not backwards compatible (e.g. March 09 and June 09)
.
One vendor expected the GTPv2 IEs in the order they are documented within
the 3GPP TS 29.274 specification
.
Missing link for the right coding of the PLMN-ID in the EUTRAN specification
3GPP TS 36.413 was detected.
Scenario 1a demonstrated that the basic interoperability between eNodeB and
MME/S-GW, MME . S-GW, MME . HSS, S-GW . P-GW, P-GW . PCRF and PCRF
and P-CSCF is working properly. Some problems were encountered with the
different versions of the GTPv2 specifications.

Scenario 1b . MME Pooling


Figure 6 Scenario 1b Test Configuration- MME Pooling.

The network architecture for scenario 1b is shown in Figure 6 above. The interfaces
for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. S1-MME, S1-U, S5, S11
and S10).

Page 26


Scenario 1b Objectives

1.
To demonstrate the ability to perform interworking between eNB, SGW and
PGW provided to vendor A and more than one MME provided by vendor B
(single vendor MME pool) by performing IP-CAN session establishment, IPCAN
session termination and IMS registration.
2.
To demonstrate the ability to perform interworking between eNB, SGW and
PGW provided to vendor A and more than one MME provided by multiple
other vendors (multi vendor MME pool) by performing IP-CAN session
establishment, IP-CAN session termination and IMS registration.
Scenario 1b builds on Scenario 1a, in that that the LTE UE Attach of scenario 1a
requires the eNB selects the appropriate MME from the MME pool.

.

Scenario 1b Testing Results and Observations

The Scenario 1b test plan defined 3 test cases. All test cases are not applicable
because the pooling function is not supported by eNB or MME Vendors.

Not Run Passed N/A Failed Exempted Total
0 0 3 0 0 3

Table 4 Scenario 1b Test Results

Analysis of the Scenario 1b tests shows:

.
Too early to test as implementations did not support this feature
Scenario 1c . SGW Selection

S-GW
S-GW
HSS P-CSCF
P-GW
PCRF
IMS Core
S5
Gx
SGi
Rx
S1-MME
IMS UA
IMS UA
UE
S-GW
MME
S-11
S6a
ENB
LTE-Uu
S1-U
S-11
S-11
S1-U
S1-U
S5
S5
Figure 7 Scenario 1c Test Configuration- SGW Selection.

The network architecture for scenario 1c is shown in Figure 7 above. The interfaces
for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. S1-MME, S1-U, S11 and
S5).

Page 27


Scenario 1c Objectives

1.
To demonstrate the ability to perform interworking between eNB, MME and
PGW provided to vendor A and more than one SGW provided by vendor B
(single vendor SGW pool) by performing IP-CAN session establishment, IPCAN
session termination and IMS registration.
2.
To demonstrate the ability to perform interworking between eNB, MME and
PGW provided to vendor A and more than one SGW provided by multiple
other vendors (multi vendor SGW pool) by performing IP-CAN session
establishment, IP-CAN session termination and IMS registration.
Scenario 1c builds on Scenario 1a, in that that the LTE UE Attach of scenario 1a
requires the MME selects the appropriate SGW from the SGW pool.

Scenario 1c Testing Results and Observations

The Scenario 1c test plan defined 6 test cases.

The Scenario 1c test plan defined 6 basic test cases. By pairing different vendors’
equipments in the various network configurations, the basic test cases were
expanded to 24 test case instances scheduled in the Vodafone Dusseldorf lab, and
23 test case instances scheduled in the CMCC Beijing lab.

The following table summarizes the test results.

No Run Passed N/A Failed Exempted Total Lab
4 14 0 0 6 24 Dusseldorf
23 0 0 0 0 23 Beijing

Table 5 Scenario 1c Test Results

The “No run” test cases were due to lack of time to execute those test cases.

The “Exempted” test cases were due to the IMS core not being accessible at that
time.

Analysis of the Scenario 1c tests shows:

.
No issue encountered so interoperability is given.
Scenario 2 . Roaming

Scenario 2 demonstrates the attachment and detachment from the network plus IMS
registration for roaming UEs.

This scenario was broken down into three sub-scenarios that are detailed below.

Page 28


Scenario 2a . Roaming (Home Routed)


Figure 8 Scenario 2a (Home Routed)

The network architecture for scenario 2a is shown in Figure 8 above. The interfaces
for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. S6a and S8).

Scenario 2a Objectives

1.
To demonstrate roaming with the UE, eNB, MME and SGW in the VPLMN
and the PGW, PCRF, P-CSCF and IMS core in the HPLMN. Specifically, the
ability to perform interworking between MME and SGW in the VPLMN to the
HSS and PGW in the HPLMN by performing IP-CAN session establishment,
IP-CAN session termination and IMS registration.
Scenario 2a Testing Results and Observations

The Scenario 2a test plan defined 7 basic test cases. By pairing different vendors’
equipments in the various network configurations, the basic test cases were
expanded to 21 test case instances scheduled in the Vodafone Dusseldorf lab, and
40 test case instances scheduled in the CMCC Beijing lab.

The following table summarizes the test results.

No Run Passed N/A Failed Exempted Total Lab
0 21 0 0 0 21 Dusseldorf
20 8 0 0 12 23 Beijing

Table 6 Scenario 2a Test Results

Page 29


The “No run” test cases were due to lack of time to execute those test cases.


The “Exempted” test cases were due to there being a configuration problem causing
issues between the UE and the IMS core.
Analysis of the Scenario 2a tests shows:


.
Notwithstanding the configuration problem, there was no issue encountered so
interoperability was proven both within the different EPC cores and between
the EPC cores and the IMS core.
Scenario 2b . Local Breakout (Home Network P-CSCF)

IMS UA
MME
S-GW
HSS P-CSCF
P-GW
H-PCRF
UE
ENB
IMS Core
LTE-Uu
S-11
S9
Rx
S6a
S1-MME
S1-U
VPLMN
HPLMN
S5
V-PCRF
Gx
Visited Operator
PDN
IMS UA
SGi
Figure 9 Scenario 2b . Roaming with local breakout

The network architecture for scenario 2b is shown in Figure 9 above. The interfaces
for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. S6a and S9).

Scenario 2b Objectives

1.
To demonstrate roaming with the UE, eNB, MME, SGW and PCRF in the
VPLMN and the HSS, P-CSCF, PCRF and IMS core in the HPLMN.
Specifically, the ability to perform interworking between MME and PCRF in
the VPLMN to the HSS and PCRF in the HPLMN by performing IP-CAN
session establishment, IP-CAN session termination and IMS registration.
Scenario 2b Testing Results and Observations

The Scenario 2b test plan defined 7 basic test cases. However, no test cases were
scheduled due to there being only one IMS system available in the event.

Page 30


The following table summarizes the test results in Dusseldorf.

Not Run Passed N/A Failed Exempted Total
0 0 7 0 0 7

Table 7 Scenario 2b Test Results

Analysis of the Scenario 2b tests shows:

.
Apart from the availability of only a single IMS core, the S9 interface was also
not widely supported and so it was too early from an implementation point of
view to test this scenario.
Scenario 2c . Local Breakout (Visited Network P-CSCF)

IMS UA
MME
S-GW
HSS
P-GW
H-PCRF
UE
ENB
IMS Core
LTE-Uu
S-11
S9
S6a
S1-MME
S1-U
VPLMN
HPLMN
S5
V-PCRF
Gx
Visited Operator
IP Services
IMS UA
SGi
P-CSCF
Rx
Figure 10 Scenario 2c . Roaming with local breakout (Visited P-CSCF)

The network architecture for scenario 2c is shown in Figure 10 above. The
interfaces for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. S6a, S9 and
Rx).

Scenario 2c Objectives

1.
To demonstrate roaming with the UE, eNB, MME, SGW, PCRF and P-CSCF
in the VPLMN and the HSS, PCRF and IMS core in the HPLMN. Specifically,
the ability to perform interworking between MME and PCRF in the VPLMN to
the HSS and PCRF in the HPLMN and the PCRF in the visited network to
the P-CSCF by performing IP-CAN session establishment, IP-CAN session
termination and IMS registration.
Scenario 2c Testing Results and Observations

The Scenario 2c test plan defined 5 basic test cases. By pairing different vendors’
equipments in the various network configurations, the basic test cases were

Page 31


expanded to 14 test case instances scheduled in both the Vodafone Dusseldorf and
CMCC Beijing labs.

The following table summarizes the test results.

No Run Passed N/A Failed Exempted Total Lab
0 0 0 0 14 14 Dusseldorf
0 0 0 0 14 14 Beijing

Table 8 Scenario 2c Test Results

The “Exempted” test cases were due to these tests being of a lower priority to others
and there being no IMS available at time periods when the tests could have been
run. In addition, the S9 interface was not widely supported.

Analysis of the Scenario 2c tests shows:

.
Too early to test as implementations did not support the S9 interface.
Scenario 3 . Non-LTE Access

Scenario 3 demonstrates the attachment and detachment to the EPC from non-LTE
accesses.

This scenario was broken down into three sub-scenarios that are detailed below.

Scenario 3a . non-LTE 3G Access with S4-SGSN

IMS UA
MME
S-GW
HSS P-CSCF
P-GW
PCRF
UE
IMS Core
S-11
S5
Gx
SGi
Rx
S6a
UTRAN
GERAN
S4 SGSN
S3
S4
S12
S6d IMS UA
Figure 11 Scenario 3a . Non-LTE 3G Access with S4 SGSN

The network architecture for scenario 3a is shown in Figure 11 above. The
interfaces for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. S6d, S3, S4
and S12).

Page 32


Scenario 3a Objectives

1.
To demonstrate the ability of a 3G UE, to attach to the EPC via a S4-SGSN
and perform interworking between the S4-SGSN of one vendor with the EPC
and IMS core of another vendor by performing IP-CAN session
establishment, IP-CAN session termination, IMS registration and IMS session
establishment and release.
Scenario 3a Testing Results and Observations

Due to time pressure in conjunction with there being no S4-SGSNs available in the
timeframe, the test cases for this scenario were postponed. The focus has been on
the development of MMEs with S4-SGSNs not yet being mature enough for
interoperability testing.

Scenario 3b . non-LTE 3G Access with legacy SGSN


Figure 12 Scenario 3b . Non-LTE 3G Access with legacy SGSN

The network architecture for scenario 3b is shown in Figure 12 above. The
interfaces for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. Gr, Gn and
Gp).

Scenario 3b Objectives

1.
To demonstrate the ability of a 3G UE, to attach to the EPC via a legacy
SGSN and perform interworking between the legacy SGSN of one vendor
with the EPC and IMS core of another vendor by performing IP-CAN session
establishment, IP-CAN session termination, IMS registration and IMS session
establishment and release.
Scenario 3b Testing Results and Observations

Due to time pressure in conjunction with there being no Release 8 legacy SGSNs
available in the timeframe, the test cases for this scenario were postponed. The
focus has been on the development of MMEs with Release 8 legacy SGSNs not yet
being mature enough for interoperability testing.

Page 33


Scenario 3c . non-LTE non-3G Access

S-GW
HSS P-CSCF
P-GW
IMS Core
S5
Gx
SGi
Rx
IMS UA
3GPP AAA
Server ePDG
Trusted Non-3GPP
IP Access Untrusted Non3GPP
IP Access
IMS UA
UE
IMS UA
UE
SWu
SWn
SWm
Gxb
S2b
S6b
SWa
STa
S2a
Gxa
PCRF
Figure 13 Scenario 3c . Non-LTE non 3G Access

The network architecture for scenario 3c is shown in Figure 13 above. The
interfaces for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. STa, SWu,
SWn, SWm, SWa, S2a, S2b and S6b).

Scenario 3c Objectives

1.
To demonstrate the ability of a non-3G UE (both trusted and untrusted) to
attach to the EPC and perform interworking between the PGW of one vendor
with the ePDG and 3GPP AAA of another vendor by performing IP-CAN
session establishment, IP-CAN session termination, IMS registration and IMS
session establishment and release.
Page 34


Scenario 3c Testing Results and Observations

Due to time pressure in conjunction with these access types being of relatively low
priority, these test cases for this scenario were postponed.

Scenario 3d . non-LTE Access (eHRPD)

eHRPDANIMS-Core-
UEeHRPD
AN
IMS-Core
P-GW
PCRF
Gx
P-CSCF IMS-UA
Rx
SGi
HSS3GPP-AAA
S6b
HSGW
S2a
AAA Proxy
STa
Gxa
UE
IMS UA
Figure 14 Scenario 3d Test Configuration- Non-LTE Access (eHRPD).

The network architecture for scenario 3d is shown in Figure 14 above. The
interfaces for which interoperability were tested are shown in red (i.e. STa, S2a, S6b,
Gx, Rx and Gxa).

Scenario 3d Objectives

1.
To demonstrate the ability of a non-3G UE (eHRPD) to attach to the EPC and
perform multi-vendor interworking between the HSGW / AAA Proxy, 3GPP
AAA, PGW, PCRF, PSCF by performing IP-CAN session establishment, IPCAN
session termination, IMS registration and IMS session establishment
and release. Note that the eHRPD UE/AN/HSGW was provided by a
simulator.
Scenario 3d Testing Results and Observations

The Scenario 3d test plan defined 11 basic test cases. By pairing different vendors’
equipments in the various network configurations, the basic test cases were
expanded to 11 test case instances in the Vodafone Dusseldorf lab. There was no
scenario 3d testing in the Beijing lab.

Page 35


The following table summarizes the test results.

No Run Passed N/A Failed Exempted Total Lab
0 4 0 0 7 11 Dusseldorf

Table 9 Scenario 3d Test Results

Four of the test cases for IP-CAN Session Establishment were executed and passed.
The “Exempted” test cases were due to a combination of time constraints together
with limitations of the test environment.

Analysis of the Scena
View All (815)
4G (2) 4G Evolution (1) 5G (35) 5g (1) 802.11 (1) 802.1X (1) ALTO (1) ANDSF (1) AT&T (2) Acceleration (1) Adobe HDS (3) Akamai (6) Amazon (3) Apple HLS (4) Authentication (1) BRAS (2) BT (1) Backbone (4) Backhaul (12) BitTorrent (1) Broadcasting (3) C-RAN (13) C-RAN/Fronthaul (12) CCN (4) CDN (52) CDNi (1) COLT (1) CORD (1) CPRI (2) Cache Control (1) Caching (5) Carrier Cloud (2) Carrier Ethernet (9) Channel Zapping (4) China Mobile (1) China Telecom (1) Cloud (10) Cloudfront (1) DASH (2) DCA (1) DHCP (3) DNS (1) DSA (1) Data Center (7) Dynamic Web Acceleration (1) EPC (5) Energy (1) Ericsson (5) Ethernet (8) FEO (2) Fairness (1) Fronthaul (5) GiGAtopia (1) Gigabit Internet (2) Global CDN (1) Google (5) HLS (1) HTTP (1) HTTP Adaptive Streaming (18) HTTP Progressive Download (3) HTTP Streaming (1) HetNet (1) Hot-Lining (1) Hotspot 2.0 (2) Huawei (3) ICN (4) IP (1) IP Allocation (1) IP Routing (8) IPTV (15) Intel (1) Internet (1) Interoperability (2) IoST (1) IoT (14) KT (22) LG U+ (3) LTE (70) LTE MAC (1) LTE-A (2) Licensed CDN (1) M2M (3) MEC (2) MPLS (25) MVNO (1) Market (4) Metro Ethernet (7) Microsoft (2) Migration (1) Mobile (4) Mobile Backhaul (1) Mobile Broadcasting (1) Mobile CDN (2) Mobile IP (1) Mobile IPTV (3) Mobile Video (1) Mobile Web Perormance (1) Mobility (1) Multi-Screen (7) Multicast (7) NFC (1) NFV (2) NTT Docomo (2) Netflix (6) Network Protocol (31) Network Recovery (3) OAM (6) OTT (31) Ofcom (1) Offloading (2) OpenFlow (1) Operator CDN (14) Orange (1) P2P (4) PCC (1) Page Speed (1) Programmable (1) Protocol (7) Pseudowire (1) QoS (5) Router (1) SCAN (1) SD-WAN (1) SDN (15) SDN/NFV (15) SK Telecom (21) SON (1) SaMOG (1) Samsung (2) Security (6) Service Overlay (1) Silverlight (4) Small Cell (3) Smart Cell (1) Smart Grid (2) Smart Network (2) Supper Cell (1) Telefonica (1) Telstra (1) Terms (1) Traffic (2) Traffic Engineering (1) Transcoding (3) Transparent Cache (2) Transparent Caching (14) VLAN (2) VPLS (2) VPN (9) VRF (2) Vendor Product (2) Verizon (2) Video Optimization (4) Video Pacing (1) Video Streaming (14) Virtual Private Cloud (1) Virtualization (3) White Box (1) Wholesale CDN (4) Wi-Fi (13) WiBro(WiMAX) (4) Wireless Operator (5) YouTube (4) eMBMS (4) eNB (1) 망이용대가 (1) 망중립성 (1) 스마트 노드 (1)

 

 

     
         
     

 

     
     

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