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Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution
August 01, 2010 | By ALU
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Alcatel-Lucent의 EPC 기술 개요 및 관련 제품 소개

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Transcript
TECHNOLOGY WHITE PAPER

Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution:

Delivering technical innovation for the new LTE mobile core

This white paper provides an overview of Alcatel-Lucent’s perspective on Evolved Packet
Core and how Alcatel-Lucent is addressing radically new requirements imposed on data
and control planes in LTE. With unprecedented amounts of bandwidth to be unleashed in
the data plane for new services, LTE-focused architecture is needed to ensure end-to-end
QoS, reliability and scalability, as well as to provide service awareness of data flows with
per-service, per-subscriber, per-application QoS. Alcatel-Lucent’s EPC solution is delivered
through high-performance, purpose-built service-aware platforms that bring forward
Alcatel-Lucent’s vast experience and leadership in key areas of service-aware IP/MPLS
routing, dynamic mobility management and dynamic policy management


Table of contents


1 1. Executive summary
2 2. Alcatel-Lucent’s EPC solution
3 2.1 Different network requirements for data and control plane in LTE
3 2.2 Alcatel-Lucent’s approach to EPC
4 2.3 EPC Gateways: Serving Gateway and Packet data Network (PDN) Gateway
5 2.4 Alcatel-Lucent Mobility and Policy Management
6 3. Delivering technical innovation for LTE core: Alcatel-Lucent EPC
6 3.1 Service-aware IP routing with advanced end-to-end QoS capabilities
6 3.2 Non-compromising scalability
6 3.3 Secure and dynamic mobility and policy management
7 3.4 Integrated cross-domain network and service management
8 4. Fixed-mobile convergence
9 5. Conclusion
10 6. Abbreviations


1. Executive summary
The Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is an integral part of Alcatel-Lucent’s end-to-end Long Term Evolution
(LTE) solution. Alcatel-Lucent envisages the EPC as the cornerstone of full and complete IP transformation
in mobile networks and a key enabler of the evolved wireless broadband.

EPC is a new, all-IP mobile core network for the LTE, and a converged framework for packet-based real-time
and non-real-time services. It is specified by 3GPP Release 8 standards (Q1 2009).

The EPC provides mobile core functionality that, in previous mobile generations (2G, 3G), has
been realized through two separate sub-domains: circuit-switched (CS) for voice and packet-switched
(PS) for data. As shown in Figure 1, in LTE, these two distinct mobile core sub-domains, used for
separate processing and switching of mobile voice and data, are unified as a single IP domain. LTE
is all-IP, end-to-end: from mobile handsets and other user end (UE) terminal devices with embedded
IP capabilities, over IP-based Evolved NodeBs (LTE base stations), across the EPC and throughout
the application domain (IMS and non-IMS).

EPC is essential for end-to-end IP service delivery across the LTE. As well, it is instrumental in
allowing the introduction of new business models, such as partnering/revenue sharing with third-
party content and application providers. EPC promotes the introduction of new innovative services
and the enablement of new applications.

EPC in ThrEE PoinTs
. EvolvedPacketCoreisanewmobilecoreforLTE.all-IP,end-to-end.EPCmustaddressaradicallynewsetofnetworkrequirementstodelivertruewirelessbroadbandQualityofExperience(QoE)
.EPCmustenablenewbusinessmodelsandrapidintroductionofnewservices
Figure 1. LTE: Evolution from separate Cs and Ps core sub-domains (3GPP case shown) to one common iP core

2G/3G



GMSC Softswitch MGW

Circuit switched
core (voice)
SGSN
PDSN
Packet switched
core (data)
PSTN
Other
mobile
networks
Internet
VPN
MSC
BSC/RNC
GGSN
HA
BTS NodeB
IP channel
eNodeB
IP channel
VoicechannelsCMDA/EV-DO
GSM/GPRS
EDGE
UMTS
HSPA
LTEEvolved packet core
(all-IP)
Transport (backhaul and backbone)
Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper

1


2. Alcatel-Lucent’s EPC solution
The Alcatel-Lucent EPC solution is purpose-built service-aware EPC, developed in-house and
optimized for the future of mobile broadband. It is based on Alcatel-Lucent’s:

.
Technical
leadership
in
IP/MPLS
and
service
routing
(service-aware
IP)
.
Broad
and
long
expertise
in
mobility
management
across
all
wireless
technologies
(3GPP,
3GPP2, IEEE)

.
Expertise
and
a
proven
track
record
in
large-scale,
real-time
dynamic
policy
management
These
three
key
areas
of
Alcatel-Lucent’s
expertise
and
leadership
are
graphically
represented


in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Alcatel-Lucent’s areas of expertise in delivering high-performance EPC

Leader in mobility management
across all radio technologies

3GPP (GSM, EDGE,
UMTS, HSPA) More than 340
wireless networks

Policy managementService aware IP
PCRFEPC GWs
Transformation and Integration Services
(Business, Service, Network, Operations)
End-to-End LTE Network
Service-oriented all-IP broadband wireless network
Optics
MEDIACOMPANIES
ADVERTISING
RETAILERS
GAMING
LTE-Enabled
Radio Access
Aggregation
& Backhaul
(MET
Transpor
Backbone
(META)
Evolved
Packet
Core
Servic
Delivery
Environment
Next-Gen Ecosystem
orm
rvice
Oppt
bledd
Radddio Accesss
AAggregaation
& Backhhaul
(METAA)
teA)
on
ess
RR EE
TTransport
BBackkbone
(MEETA)
Servvice
Delivvery
Environnment
EnEo-EnEnnd LTEnd
Pb
NtNext G-Gen EEcos
Mobility management
MME
3GPP2 (CDMA, EV-DO)
IEEE (WiMAX) worldwide
30,000+ service routers in More than
260+ customers worldwide 50 triple play networks

Alcatel-Lucent views the introduction of the EPC as a fundamental shift in mobile networks towards
all-IP wireless broadband; a new core that is a foundation for wireless broadband for years to come.
Alcatel-Lucent reduces the overall cost of LTE with forward-looking product architectures that
minimize hardware upgrades. At the same time, its EPC solution has the capability to unleash
new business models by allowing integration with third-party content providers, allowing managed
and secure network openness (presence of new devices and applications), and rapidly enabling and
activating new services.

Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


2.1 Different network requirements for data and control plane in LTE
While LTE introduces a clear delination of the data (user) plane and a control plane, it also imposes
two sets of distinct technical requirements on the data plane and control plane:

.
Data plane . needs to address requirements for high bandwidth, high availability and scalability,
with aggregate throughput (per gateway) easily reaching over 100 Gb/s. At the same time, the
data plane needs to allow unaffected wirespeed performance with sophisticated processing of
millions of service data flows and data bearers turned on, while being able to provide sophisticated,
fine-granular (per-application, per-service, per-user) QoS.
.
Control plane . needs to address the requirements for high scalability and high availability of
secure mobility and connection management, along with highly reliable and scalable network-
wide policy and subscriber management.
Figure 3 shows how the distinct LTE requirements for data and control planes are addressed.

Figure 3. Addressing distinct LTE requirements for data and control planes

EPC gateways
MME PCRF
3GPP2 core (CDMA, EV-DO)
3GPP core (GSM, UMTS, HSPA)
Data plane
Control plane
Web 2.0+
eNodeB
Evolved packet core
2.2 Alcatel-Lucent’s approach to EPC
Alcatel-Lucent is addressing different technical requirements imposed on the data (user) and control
planes in EPC/LTE with network elements that are purpose-built and optimized to perform dedicated
data and control plane functions:

.
EPC
gateways
are
delivered
through
an
in-house,
proven
and
leading
service-aware
IP/MPLS
routing platform with advanced QoS processing.

.
EPC
control
plane
functions
are
realized
through
dedicated
mobility
and
policy
management
elements based on in-house ATCA platform.

Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


Figure 4 shows the purpose-built elements of the EPC.

Figure 4. Alcatel-Lucent EPC: Purpose-built elements


Serving Gateway Mobility Management Entity
Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway Policy and Charging Rules Function


EPC gateways based on 7750 Service Router MME and PCRF based on in-house ATCA platform


. Serving gateway: serves a large number of eNodeBs,
. MME: control-plane element responsible for high volume
with focus on highly scalable and secure data connectivity
mobility management and connection management;
managing thousands of eNodeBs


.
PDN gateway: responsible for IP management (”IP anchor”)
and connection to external data networks; focus on highly . PCRF performs network control of flows: detection, gating,
scalable data connectivity and QoS enforcement QoS and flow-based charging, authorizes networkwide use
of QoS resources (manages millions on service data flows)

All Alcatel-Lucent EPC components are forward-looking, purpose-built elements, developed
in-house and optimized for the future of wireless broadband.

2.3 EPC Gateways: Serving Gateway and Packet data Network (PDN) Gateway
With the addition of a Mobile
Gateway Integrated Services Module Figure 5. Alcatel-Lucent EPC data plane elements: EPC gateways
(MG-ISM), Alcatel-Lucent is elevating
its advanced and successful 7750
Service Router into an EPC gateway,
building upon its leadership in the
areas of Service IP Routing. Alcatel-
Lucent 7750 SR is a massively scalable
service-aware IP routing plat


+


=

form, already proven across multiple
segments (business VPNs, triple play,


7750 SR MG-ISM EPC (S/P) Gateway

mobile backbone and backhaul).

(Mobile GatewayFigure 5 shows the EPC data plane Integrated Services

Module)

elements that make up the EPC
gateway.

Service Awareness on the 7750 SR is instrumental to ensure the delivery of advanced QoS needed

for
the
ultimate
wireless
broadband
Quality
of
Experience
(QoE).
EPC
gateways
come
with
a
full


suite of IPv4/IPv6 functionality, along with integrated DPI capabilities.

The 7750 SR SGW is a data plane element whose primary function is to manage user-plane mobility
and act as a demarcation point between the RAN and core networks. SGW maintains data paths
between eNodeBs and the PDN Gateway (PGW). From a functional perspective, the SGW is the
termination point of the packet data network interface towards E-UTRAN.

Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


Like the 7750 SR SGW, the 7750 SR Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN GW) is the termination
point of the packet data interface towards the Packet Data Network(s). As an anchor point for sessions

towards
the
external
Packet
Data
Networks,
the
PDN
GW
supports:


.
Policy
Enforcement
features
(applies
operator-defined
rules
for
resource
allocation
and
usage)
.
Packet
filtering
(for
example,
deep
packet
inspection
for
application
type
detection)
.
Charging
support
(for
example,
per-URL
charging)
2.4 Alcatel-Lucent Mobility and Policy Management
The Alcatel-Lucent MME is a purpose-built high-performance network element, designed and
manufactured for carrier-grade reliability. It has redundant hardware architecture and high availability
ensured with built-in self-healing fault monitoring and recovery capabilities, including in-service
software upgrades.

The Mobility Management Entity (MME) is a nodal element within the LTE EPC. It performs the
signaling and control functions to manage the User Equipment (UE) access to network connections,
the assignment of network resources and the management of the mobility states to support tracking,
paging, roaming and handovers. MME controls all control plane functions related to subscriber and
session management.

The Alcatel-Lucent PCRF is a carrier-grade, purpose-built policy management system, capable of
dynamic scaling and high performance. It provides tight integration with EPC gateways and the
MME, as well as with LTE/EPC network and service management platforms.

In the generic policy and charging control 3GPP model, the Policy and Charging Enforcement
Function (PCEF) is the generic name for the functional entity that supports service data flow
detection, policy enforcement and flow-based charging. The Application Function (AF) here
represents the network element that supports applications that require dynamic policy and/or

charging
control.
In
the
IMS
model,
the
AF
is
implemented
by
the
Proxy
Call
Session
Control


Function (P-CSCF).

Although based on the common ATCA hardware, MME and PCRF are realized as two separate
elements. Figure 6 graphically represents the approach taken by Alcatel-Lucent when delivering
these purpose-built control plane elements for LTE.

Figure 6. Alcatel-Lucent EPC control plane elements: MME and PCrF

.. GSM
.. GPRS
.. EDGE
.. UMTS
.. HSPA
More than 340

.. CDMA
wireless networks

.. EV-DO
worldwide

.. WiMAX
Industry-leading mobility
and policy/subscriber
management expertise

+

=

More than 50 triple
play networks


In-house ATCA platform In-house software MME PCRF

Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


3. Delivering technical innovation for LTE core: Alcatel-Lucent EPC
Alcatel-Lucent EPC solution brings significant innovation to EPC in these key areas:

.
Service-aware
IP
routing
with
advanced
end-to-end
QoS
capabilities
.
Non-compromising
scalability
.
Secure
and
dynamic
mobility
and
policy
management
.
Integrated
end-to-end
network
and
service
management
3.1 Service-aware IP routing with advanced end-to-end QoS capabilities
Service
Awareness,
used
in
the
context
of
IP
routing,
is
the
unique
ability
of
Alcatel-Lucent’s
EPC


gateways to analyze, understand and process LTE traffic (service data flows and bearers), without
affecting the system’s wirespeed performance. The advanced processing of traffic takes into consideration
different traffic types and service requirements from the perspective of network flows (L1L3),
sessions and applications (L4-L7).

Advanced end-to-end QoS capabilities are achieved through advanced traffic management, with endto-
end visibility of all network resources. EPC gateways guarantee high performance and scalability
with fine granularity of multiple service levels (QoS definitions) per-subscriber, or per traffic or
application type. This ability to perform advanced QoS and traffic management on several levels is
referred to as hierarchical QoS or H-QoS.

H-QoS provides additional control over network resources and optimizes bandwidth efficiency

and
service
quality,
while
ensuring
maximum
isolation
and
fairness
between
various
services
and


applications. H-QoS enables bandwidth allocation and management according to the bandwidth
budget and/or priority of each base station type, individual traffic or service category (and potentially

for
individual
applications
used
within
a
service
category).
For
example,
voice
traffic
can
be
granted


the highest priority, followed by video services, and finally high-speed Internet traffic (with various

quality
grades
for
specific
Internet
applications).
OTT
Internet
traffic
(for
example,
YouTube)
can


be detected and managed using a pre-defined network policy. H-QoS can also optimize resource
utilization by ensuring that any unused bandwidth allocated to higher priority services automatically
becomes available, as needed, for lower classes of service.

3.2 Non-compromising scalability
Alcatel-Lucent EPC gateways can address the most stringent LTE scalability requirements, because
they are architecturally tailored to allow unrestricted scaling without performance degradation. A
typical advanced multiservice router currently on the market cannot address this requirement for
scaling without serious performance degradation. The Alcatel-Lucent EPC gateway addresses LTE
requirements without any impact on the performance.

3.3 Secure and dynamic mobility and policy management
Alcatel-Lucent’s architecture of the EPC control plane elements . MME and PCRF . has been
chosen to also address a very important aspect of security.

MME
has
been
designed
for
high-volume
computing
and
extreme
performance,
in
order
to
support


the increased signaling load and direct control plane management of thousands of eNodeBs, while
ensuring the interworking with multiple standards legacy networks.

At the same time, the Alcatel-Lucent PRCF platform is a result of Alcatel-Lucent’s industry leader


ship
in
fixed
broadband.
The
PRCF
platform
is
developed
using
Alcatel-Lucent’s
leading
expertise
in
subscriber
management
and
its
vast
experience
in
managing
large
IPTV
installations
(for
example,


AT&T’s Lightspeed network).

Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


Figure 7 illustrates the secure and dynamic mobility and policy management in EPC.

Figure 7. secure and dynamic, highly reliable and scalable mobility and policy management in EPC

eNodeB
SGW
MME
PDN GW
PCRF
PDSN/HARNC
Evolved packet core
CDMA/EV-DO WCDMA/HSPA GSM/GPRS/EDGE
SGSN/GGSNRNCSGSN/GGSNBSC
Non-IMS applications and services

Communications Messaging
services services

Dynamic policy
Dynamic services
Real-time
service control
Converged
dynamic
policy
management
Communications Messaging
services services

IMS applications and services

3.4 Integrated cross-domain network and service management
Network and service management also play a key role in LTE networks. The LTE QoE . in terms of
coverage, bandwidth, latency, and mobility (handover) . is directly impacted by the configuration
and management of LTE network elements (eNodeBs, gateways, MME, PCRF) as well as the inter-
working with legacy 2G and 3G layers. From an operator standpoint, an efficient and consolidated
management system is crucial to contain the total cost of network ownership, optimize asset usage,
and streamline multi-technology network operations.

With
Alcatel-Lucent’s
integrated
network
management
system,
operators
will
experience
continuity


in look and feel and usability for GSM, W-CDMA to LTE, and EV-DO to LTE management tools

. now managing IP capabilities end-to-end across mobile and transport domains. Under the 5620
Service Aware Manager, the EPC seamlessly merges with the IP/MPLS transport network and the
5620 SAM allows:
.
Common
IP
management
domain
.
Common
security
procedures,
network
level
fault
isolation,
detection
and
resolution
.
Coordinated
management/provisioning
across
network
elements
.
Seamless
inter-technology
QoS
continuity
ensuring
smooth
service
continuity
between
legacy
and LTE networks

.
Tight
integration
of
mobile
and
transport
Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


Figure 8 shows the Alcatel-Lucent 5620 SAM’s network management solution.

Figure 8. Common network management across EPC mobile and transport domains using the Alcatel-Lucent 5620
service Aware Manager

End-to-end IP management (including services)
5620 SAM

Transport
Mobile
Cross-layer (domain) coordination and managementSGW MME PGWPCRF
Evolved packet core
eNodeB
Mobile backhaul IP/MPLS aggregation network Mobile backhaul
7705 SAR
9500 MPR
7210 SAS
7450 ESS 7710 SR 7750 SR
IP/MPLS
7705 SAR
9500 MPR
7210 SAS 7710 SR
7750 SR
4. Fixed-mobile convergence
Alcatel-Lucent views the introduction of the LTE as a fundamental shift in mobile networks
towards all-IP wireless broadband. This is the reason Alcatel-Lucent EPC has been engineered and
built to act as a foundation for wireless broadband for many years to come . addressing multidimensional
scalability of network bandwidth, applications, services, users and terminals. With a

full
suite
of
IP
capabilities
already
widely
deployed
in
many
fixed
environments,
Alcatel-Lucent
EPC


delivers advanced end-to-end IP capabilities to LTE mobile environments.

As such, Alcatel-Lucent EPC solution is perfectly suited to evolve to a multi-access, multiservice

core
that
will
be
the
cornerstone
of
the
full
convergence
of
fixed
and
mobile
environments
.
with


common service delivery and policy management domain . delivering ubiquitous universal broadband
over any type of access.

Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


While it may take some time for this vision to become reality, Alcatel-Lucent EPC solution (see
Figure 9) is fully capable of addressing these requirements, as already proven in the largest IP

transformations
in
many
fixed
and
mobile
environments.


Figure 9. Alcatel-Lucent EPC as a cornerstone for multi-access, multiservice core convergence

eNodeB
SGW
MME
PDN GW
PDSN/HARNC
PCRF
Evolved packet core
CDMA/EV-DO
SGSN/GGSNRNC
WCDMA/HSPA GSM/GPRS/EDGE
SGSN/GGSNBSC
Dynamic policy
Dynamic services
Real-time
service control
Converged
dynamic
policy
management
Communications
services
Messaging
services
Non-IMS applications and services
IMS applications and services
Communications
services
Messaging
services
BSA
(Broadband
service
aggregator)
BSAN
(Broadband
service
access node)
BSR
(Broadband
service
router)
Packet core
(fixed)
DSL,
GPONIP/MPLS
5. Conclusion
Alcatel-Lucent’s EPC solution delivers a new, service-aware all-IP mobile core for LTE, capable
of true wireless broadband QoE, with advanced end-to-end QoS with secure and dynamic bearer,
mobility and policy management.

Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


Table 1 outlines key innovation areas of Alcatel-Lucent’s EPC solution.

Table 1. Key innovation areas of Alcatel-Lucent’s EPC solution

KEy innovATion ArEAs in ALCATEL-LuCEnT’s EPC soLuTion rELEvAnCE To EPC/LTE
Service-awareIPProvides network awareness of connections and traffic flows and their
mapping to services. This is essential when introducing new service models,
anditalignswithLTEservicerequirements.Thisisalsoimportantforadvancedpacketprocessing,suchasDeepPacketInspection(DPI).
Advanced, hierarchical QoS capabilities
(per-session, per-flow, per-subscriber)
Ensuresend-to-endQoSofnewservicesandservicebundles.
Secure and dynamic bearer, mobility and policy
management
AddressesLTErequirementsandinterworkingwithexistingsystems.Italsoallows new charging models while protecting network resources.
Data and Control Plane scalability EssentialfordeliveryofevolvedwirelessbroadbandcapabilitiesinLTEenvironment. Minimizes further hardware upgrades in the network.
High availability Allows support for real-time communication services.
6. Abbreviations
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project
3GPP2 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2
AF Application Function
AS Access Stratum
CDF Charging Data Function
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDR Charging Data Record
CGF Charging Gateway Function
CRF Charging Rules Function
CS Circuit Switched
CSCF Call Session Control Function
DL Downlink
E-UTRAN
Evolved-UTRAN
EDGE
Enhanced
Data
rates
for
GSM
Evolution
EMM
EPS
Mobility
Management
eNodeB
evolved
NodeB
EPC
Evolved
Packet
Core
EPS
Evolved
Packet
System
GERAN
GPRS
EDGE
Radio
Access
Network
GGSN
Gateway
GPRS
Support
Node
GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Center
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System for Mobile communications
GTP GPRS Tunnelling Protocol
HLR Home Location Register
HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSPA High Speed Packet Access
HSS Home Subscriber Server
HSUPA
High
Speed
Uplink
Packet
Access
IETF
Internet
Engineering
Task
Force
IEEE
Institute
of
Electrical
and
Electronics
Engineers
IMS
IP
Multimedia
Subsystem


IMSI
International
Mobile
Subscriber
Identity
IMT-2000
International
Mobile
Telecommunications 2000
ISIM
IMS
Subscriber
Identity
Module
ITU
International
Telecommunication
Union
LTE
Long
Term
Evolution
MBMS
Multimedia
Broadcast
and
Multicast
Service
MIMO
Multi
Input
Multi
Output
MGCF Media Gateway Control Function
MGW Media Gateway
MME
Mobility
Management
Entity
MMD MultiMedia Domain
MNC
Mobile
Network
Code
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MT Mobile Terminal
NAS
Non
Access
Stratum
NGN
Next
Generation
Network
OFDM
Orthogonal
Frequency
Division
Multiplexing
OFDMA
Orthogonal
Frequency
Division
Multiple Access.
P-GW
PDN
Gateway
PCEF
Policy
and
Charging
Enforcement
Function
PCRF Policy and Charging Rules Function
PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol
PDF Policy Decision Function
PDP
Context
Packet
Data
Protocol
Context
PLMN
Public
Land
Mobile
Network
PoC Push-to-talk over Cellular
PS Packet Switched domain
PSTN
Public
Switched
Telephone
Network


Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


RNC
Radio
Network
Control


S-GW Serving Gateway

SAE
System
Architecture
Evolution


SDF Service Data Flow

SGSN
Serving
GPRS
Support
Node
SIM
Subscriber
Identity
Module
SIP
Session
Initiation
Protocol


SM Session Management
SMS Short Message Service
TA Tracking Area
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

TDD
Time
Division
Duplex
TE
Terminal
Equipment
TISPAN
Telecommunication
and
Internet


converged Services and Protocols

for
Advanced
Networking


UDP
UE
UL
UMB
UMTS


USIM
UTRAN


WCDMA

WiMAX


User
Datagram
Protocol
User
Equipment
Up-Link
Ultra
Mobile
Broadband
Universal
Mobile
Telecommunications


System

Universal
Subscriber
Identity
Module


Universal
Terrestrial
Radio
Access
Network


Wide band Code Division Multiple
Access

Worldwide
Interoperability
Microwave


Access

Alcatel-Lucent Evolved Packet Core Solution | Technology White Paper


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CPG 2896090227 (03)
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4G (2) 4G Evolution (1) 5G (36) 5g (1) 802.11 (1) 802.1X (1) ALTO (1) ANDSF (1) AT&T (2) Acceleration (1) Adobe HDS (3) Akamai (6) Amazon (3) Apple HLS (4) Authentication (1) BRAS (2) BT (1) Backbone (4) Backhaul (12) BitTorrent (1) Broadcasting (3) C-RAN (13) C-RAN/Fronthaul (12) CCN (4) CDN (52) CDNi (1) COLT (1) CORD (1) CPRI (2) Cache Control (1) Caching (5) Carrier Cloud (2) Carrier Ethernet (9) Channel Zapping (4) China Mobile (1) China Telecom (1) Cloud (10) Cloudfront (1) DASH (2) DCA (1) DHCP (3) DNS (1) DSA (1) Data Center (7) Dynamic Web Acceleration (1) EDGE (1) EPC (5) Energy (1) Ericsson (5) Ethernet (8) FEO (2) Fairness (1) Fronthaul (5) GiGAtopia (1) Gigabit Internet (2) Global CDN (1) Google (5) HLS (1) HTTP (1) HTTP Adaptive Streaming (18) HTTP Progressive Download (3) HTTP Streaming (1) HetNet (1) Hot-Lining (1) Hotspot 2.0 (2) Huawei (3) ICN (4) IP (1) IP Allocation (1) IP Routing (8) IPTV (15) Intel (1) Internet (1) Interoperability (2) IoST (1) IoT (14) KT (22) LG U+ (3) LTE (70) LTE MAC (1) LTE-A (2) Licensed CDN (1) M2M (3) MEC (3) MPLS (25) MVNO (1) Market (4) Metro Ethernet (7) Microsoft (2) Migration (1) Mobile (4) Mobile Backhaul (1) Mobile Broadcasting (1) Mobile CDN (2) Mobile IP (1) Mobile IPTV (3) Mobile Video (1) Mobile Web Perormance (1) Mobility (1) Multi-Screen (7) Multicast (7) NFC (1) NFV (2) NTT Docomo (2) Netflix (6) Network Protocol (31) Network Recovery (3) OAM (6) OTT (31) Ofcom (1) Offloading (2) OpenFlow (1) Operator CDN (14) Orange (1) P2P (4) PCC (1) Page Speed (1) Programmable (1) Protocol (7) Pseudowire (1) QoS (5) Router (1) SCAN (1) SD-WAN (1) SDN (15) SDN/NFV (15) SK Telecom (22) SON (1) SaMOG (1) Samsung (2) Security (6) Service Overlay (1) Silverlight (4) Small Cell (3) Smart Cell (1) Smart Grid (2) Smart Network (2) Supper Cell (1) Telefonica (1) Telstra (1) Terms (1) Traffic (2) Traffic Engineering (1) Transcoding (3) Transparent Cache (2) Transparent Caching (14) VLAN (2) VPLS (2) VPN (9) VRF (2) Vendor Product (2) Verizon (2) Video Optimization (4) Video Pacing (1) Video Streaming (14) Virtual Private Cloud (1) Virtualization (3) White Box (1) Wholesale CDN (4) Wi-Fi (13) WiBro(WiMAX) (4) Wireless Operator (5) YouTube (4) eMBMS (4) eNB (1) 망이용대가 (1) 망중립성 (1) 스마트 노드 (1)

 

 

     
         
     

 

     
     

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