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  스폰서채널 서비스란?
Comparing Adaptive HTTP Streaming Technologies
July 20, 2011 | By RGB Networks
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Transcript
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Comparing Adaptive HTTP Streaming Technologies
Yuval Fisher , CTO RGB Networks
COMMTECH
May 2011




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Overview

.Review of Adaptive HTTP Streaming

.Review of widely available technology

.Apple HLS, Adobe HDS, Microsoft SSS

.(Not to mention DASH, HAS, AHS)


.Comparing specific Features

.delivery of multiple audio channels

.encryption

.closed captions / subtitling

.ability to insert ads

.trick modes (fast forward / rewind)

.fast channel change

.failover due to upstream issues

.stream latency

.ability to send other data to the client, including manifest compression


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Traditional (Unicast) Streaming

Encoder

Streamer

PC-with-Video-Image-Icon.gif
TV-with-Video-Image-Icon.gif
iPhone-with-Video-Image-Icon.gif
Clients











.Client/Server share state

.(Typically) connectionless protocol

.Susceptible to losses

.Firewall / NAT unfriendly


.Difficult to adapt to network conditions

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Adaptive HTTP Streaming

Encoder

HTTP Server /CDN
PC-with-Video-Image-Icon.gif
TV-with-Video-Image-Icon.gif
iPhone-with-Video-Image-Icon.gif
Clients


.Stateless server

.Uses HTTP/TCP

.Recovers from packet drops

.Firewall / NAT friendly

.Adapts to network / client conditions

.Fast start-up / seek

.Inexpensive CDN


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Adaptive HTTP Streaming Consequences

.Live and VoDworkflow are almost identicalBut…

.Latency

.Up to 30 seconds is typical

.Special low-latency tricks can bring this down to 1-2 seconds


.TCP transmission works well at low packet drop rates but not at all at higher (3-5%) packet drop rates


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Workflow Architecture I

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Workflow Architecture II

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Workflow Components

InputFeeds
Encoder
H.264
MBR/TS

Packager


PC-icon.jpg

CDN

EncryptionKey Server
Client

Multi-stream output
Scaled, progressive H.264
AAC-LC audio
Same audio in all profiles
SCTE-35 aware
Inter-encoder IDR aligned

Encryption capable
Stream/File ingest
Separate or integrated
HTTP GET/POST/PUT

File TTL
Manage many(!) files

HLS on iOSAndroid > 3.0, STB
SSS on PCs, iOS, STB
HDS on PCs, Android > 2.3

Sadly proprietary API
(MPEG-IF workgroup )

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Chunked Streaming: How Does it Work

MCj03895060000[1]
MCj04347930000[1]
MCj04040950000[1]

Cylinder Gray.jpg

MCj04316020000[1]
PC

Mobile/ Wireless

Sony-TV
Digital Set Top


HTTP Server

CHANNEL 2

CHANNEL 3

CHANNEL 1

Live Manifest/Playlist file

Transcoder/Encoder

.
.
.

chunks

profile


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Adaptive Streaming: How Does it Work


Cylinder Gray.jpg

MCj04316020000[1]
PC

Mobile/ Wireless

Sony-TV
Digital Set Top

HTTP Server

CHANNEL 1


Live Playlist files
Transcoder/Encoder

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Streaming Adaptively

.Client adapts to local conditions.

.Resolution

.CPU load

.As available bitrate drops the client fetches lower bitrate chunks. As the available bitrate increases, the client fetches higher bitrate chunks.

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Live and VoD Adaptive Streaming

.Live

.Client refreshes manifest repeatedly

.Manifest/Playlist contains latest few (3) chunks

.(But… latency is longer)

.VoD

.Client fetches manifest just once

.Manifest/Playlist contains all the chunks

.Chunks are the same as in the live case .nearly same work flow for live and VoD

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Overview of …

.Apple HTTL Live Streaming (HLS)

.Microsoft Silverlight Smooth Streaming (SSS)

.Adobe HTTP Dynamic Streaming (HDS)

.But not..

.Move Networks

.MPEG DASH, 3GPP AHS, and OIPF HAS

.DRM vendors’ offering







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Comparison

.HLS

.Text based m3u8 playlist file is repeatedly downloaded

.Stream profile information and metadata in playlist file

.Chunks are MPEG-2 TS, integrating audio, video, data

.URLs reference chunks by name


.SSS

.XML based manifest file is loaded once with stream profile information

.Chunks carry information for fetching subsequent chunks

.Chunks are fMP4 with separate audio, video, data

.RESTfulURLs specify profile level and chunk time


.HDS

.XML based f4m manifest file is loaded once with stream information

.Binary bootstrap file with subsequent chunk info is repeatedly loaded

.Chunks are fMP4, integrating audio, video, data

.RESTfulURLs specify profile level and chunk sequence

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Basics

Encoder


Source

Packager

CDN

Client

HLS

Playlist

TS

TS
TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

SSS&HDS

Aggregate MP4

Manifest

fMP4

fMP4

fMP4

fMP4

fMP4
fMP4

fMP4

fMP4

.For VoD, aggregate formats can be put on CDN

.For live, chunks are distributed on the CDN

.SSS & HDS have aggregate formats for each bitrate

.SSS has a separate aggregate format for each audio track and data track

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Feature Comparison

.delivery of multiple audio channels

.encryption

.closed captions / subtitling

.ability to insert ads

.trick modes (fast forward / rewind)

.fast channel change

.failover due to upstream issues

.stream latency

.ability to send other data to the client, including manifest compression

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Multiple Audio Channels

.HLS

.TS files can carry multiple audio

.Need separate TS chunks for separate video/audio pairs

.No aggregate format means all chunks need to be stored

.Most packagers don’t demuxand remuxthe TS input stream


.SSS

.Manifest change will cause client to request any video/audio pair

.Aggregate format alleviates duplicate chunk storage


.HDS

.Aggregate format alleviates duplication. But..

.No clean way to handle multiple languages, as the audio and video are multiplexed in the chunks. Must either send all audio versions in chunks (as in TS case), or create multiple aggregate formats







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Encryption

.HLS

.Whole chunk is encrypted .can’t extract information from chunk

.Authentication for key distribution is not part of specification

.Can use https

.DRM vendors’ solution often has a twist


.SSS

.Widely available/accepted PlayReady

.Client authentication is per PlayReady

.KMS ..packager interface is proprietary and requires integration


.HDS

.Flash Access

.Simpler KMS ..packager interface

.Just coming out for live streams







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Closed Captions / Subtitles

.HLS

.Supports ATSC Digital Television Standard Part 4 .MPEG-2 Video System Characteristics -A/53, Part 4:2007 as of iOS4.3

.Supports insertions of ID3 tags which can carry timed text information

.DVB teletextneeds conversion into one of these formats (DVB bitmaps are a pain)


.SSS

.Separate data track using TTML subset

.Plans to support SMPTE TTML which supports inclusion of images (e.g. DVB bitmaps) in the overlays as well


.HDS

.No ‘native’ support, but..

.Supports client events via event cues and can pull in data using ActionScript, but client must be written







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Ad Insertion: pre-transcode

Live Feeds
Transcode

Multi-zone AdInserted Streams

TV-icon.jpg
PC-icon.jpg

Ad Server
(SCTE-30)

iPhone-icon-rotated.jpg


iPhone-icon-rotated.jpg

TV-icon.jpg
iPhone-icon-rotated.jpg
PC-icon.jpg

Ad Insert
Transcode

Zone 1PC Smooth Streaming
Zone 2
iPad/iPhone HLS

Zone N
Packager

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Ad insertion: post-transcode




Live
Feeds

Transcoder
Multi-zone Ad
Inserted Streams


TV-icon.jpg
PC-icon.jpg

Ad Server(SCTE-30)

iPhone-icon-rotated.jpg


iPhone-icon-rotated.jpg

TV-icon.jpg
iPhone-icon-rotated.jpg
PC-icon.jpg


Transcode

Ad Insert

Zone 1
PC Smooth Streaming

Zone 2iPad/iPhone HLS
Zone N

Packager

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PC 1

HTTP Server / Splicer / ADS/CIS

CHANNEL 1


Live Manifest/Playlist file
Transcode

chunks
profile

Live
Feeds

HTTP Ad Server

PC 2
SCTE-130
ADM / POIS

Chunk-based ad insertion

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Ad Insertion: chunk based

.HLS

.Simple/easy .just change playlist


.SSS

.Can do client-side insertion using ‘sparse tracks’ (client fetches ad and inserts it on cue)

.Network side insertion:

.Rquirescareful timing of chunks or re-stamping of data in fMP4

.Must use proxy to redirect requests

.HDS

.Has ability to trigger ActionScriptevents, but no ‘native’ support

.Network side insertion:

.Requires keeping track of chunk sequence number

.Requires binary manipulation of bootstrap files

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Trick Modes and Fast Channel Change

.HLS -No native trick mode support

.SSS .No native support, but supports zoetropes(but spec isn’t public)

.HDS .Has support for fast forward and rewind

.Channel ‘tune in’ depends on chunk size and client implementation (and available low bandwidth profile)

.SSS & HDS recommend short (2-4sec) chunk size

.Can use small chunks with HLS too

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Failover

.HLS

.Built in client-side support for failover

.Simplifies network-managed failover

.SSS & HDS

.Specification doesn’t have a client-side built-in failover

.Run time can allow complex behavior

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Latency

.HLS

.Recommended 10 second chunk leads to long latency (30 seconds)

.Can be run with shorter chunks

.SSS

.Has special low-latency mode (<2sec)

.HDS

.Short chunks lead to lower latency (several seconds)

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Metadata and Manifest Compression

.Playlist / Manifest files can store metadata

.e.g. time associated with each chunk

.Ad chunks

.All three can trigger client events in the client run-time using a separate data track

.SSS can send compressed manifests

.Reduce startup latency

.Small portion of the overall data

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Feature
HLS
SSS
HDS

Multiple audio channels
.
Encryption
. .

Closed captions / subtitling
.
.

ability to insert ads
.
.

trick modes (fast forward / rewind)
.

fast channel change
.
.

Client failover
.

stream latency
.
.

Metadata
.
.
.

Feature Summary

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Summary

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Apple HTTP Live Streaming

.Advantages:

.Simple protocol = easy to modify

.TS chunks .rich eco-system, carriage of metadata

.Native to iOS.monetizable


.Disadvantages:

.No native Windows support

.TS files muxthe audio, video and data together

.Longer chunk size .slower bitrate adaptation

.No standard aggregate format (A day’s worth of one channel with 8 profiles at 10 second chunk duration will consist of almost 70,000 files)

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Microsoft Silverlight Smooth Streaming

.Advantages:

.Microsoft IIS aggregate format

.IIS brings analysis and logging tools + HLS

.Small chunk size allows for rapid adaptation

.Segregated video / audio / data delivery .reduced storage and added flexibility

.Many advanced features


.Disadvantages:

.IIS server in the data flow adds an extra point of failure

.Silverlight client plug-in required (but over 67% penetration)







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Adobe HTTP Dynamic Streaming

.Advantages:

.Ubiquitous Flash client (>96% internet enabled desktops world wide )

.Flash run time environment ads interactive functionality

.Aggregate file format

.Short chunk duration


.Disadvantages:

.Late comer .stability / incomplete live workflow

.Binary bootstrap format not super friendly







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Questions: yfisher@rgbnetworks.com

Thank You
Thank You




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References
[HLS] HTTP Live Streaming, R. Pantos, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-06
[MP4] International Organization for Standardization (2003). \"MPEG-4 Part 14: MP4 file format; ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003\"
[SSBLOG] http://blog.johndeutscher.com/, http://blogs.iis.net/samzhang/ , http://alexzambelli.com/blog/, http://blogs.iis.net/jboch/
[SSTO] Smooth Streaming Technical Overview, http://learn.iis.net/page.aspx/626/smooth-streaming-technical-overview/
[ATCA] ATSC Digital Television Standard Part 4 .MPEG-2 Video System Characteristics (A/53, Part 4:2007), http://www.atsc.org/cms/standards/a53/a_53-Part-4-2009.pdf
[TTML] Timed Text Markup Language, W3C Recommendation 18 November 2010, http://www.w3.org/TR/ttaf1-dfxp/
[SSS] IIS Smooth Streaming Transport Protocol, http://www.iis.net/community/files/media/smoothspecs/%5BMS-SMTH%5D.pdf
[F4M] Flash Media Manifest File Format Specification, http://osmf.org/dev/osmf/specpdfs/FlashMediaManifestFileFormatSpecification.pdf
[HDS] HTTP Dynamic Streaming on the Adobe Flash Platform, http://www.adobe.com/products/httpdynamicstreaming/pdfs/httpdynamicstreaming_wp_ue.pdf
[AHS] 3GPP TS 26.234: \"Transparent end-to-end packet switched
streaming service (PSS); Protocols and codecs\".
[HAS] OIPF Release 2 Specification -HTTP Adaptive Streaming http://www.openiptvforum.org/docs/Release2/OIPF-T1-R2-Specification-Volume-2a-HTTP-Adaptive-Streaming-V2_0-2010-09-07.pdf
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