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HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using the Edgeware Video Delivery Appliance
August 20, 2011 | By Edgeware
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Edgeware White Paper [Table of Contents] 1. Confidentiality notice 2. About this document 3. History 4. Introduction 5. The Issues that HTTP Adaptive Streaming Address 6. HTTP Adaptive Streaming Ecosystem and Architecture     6.1 Edgeware Video Streaming Servers     6.2 Support within the Edgeware Asset Caching & Propagation System     6.3 Edgeware Origin Management System 7. References

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Transcript
HTTP Adaptive Streaming
Using the Edgeware Video Delivery Appliances
 Microsoft® Smooth Streaming
 Apple HTTP Live Streaming
 Adobe® HTTP Dynamic Streaming
Whitepaper
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 2
Table of Contents
1. Confidentiality notice ........................................................................................................................................ 3
2. About this document ........................................................................................................................................ 3
3. History ............................................................................................................................................................... 3
4. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
5. The Issues that HTTP Adaptive Streaming Address ............................................................................................ 4
6. HTTP Adaptive Streaming Ecosystem and Architecture..................................................................................... 6
6.1 Edgeware Video Streaming Servers ......................................................................................................................... 6
6.2 Support within the Edgeware Asset Caching & Propagation System ...................................................................... 7
6.3 Edgeware Origin Management System ................................................................................................................. 13
7. References ...................................................................................................................................................... 13
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 3
1. Confidentiality notice
This document is confidential and may not be reproduced, distributed or used for any purpose other than by
the recipient for the assessment, evaluation and use of Edgeware products, unless written permission is given
in advance by Edgeware AB.
2. About this document
This document provides and overview of adaptive streaming technologies and their application in Edgeware’s
video delivery products. The intended readers are operator and CDN product managers and technical
architects looking for an overview of Edgeware products and their operation. It is not intended to provide indepth
technical information, which is available in Edgeware technical documentation.
3. History
Version Date Changes
1 2010-03-17 First version.
1.1 2010-03-22 Edited for grammar and spelling. No major changes to content.
1.2 2010-04-06 Formatting changes only
1.3 2010-04-07 Corrections to Adobe® HTTP Dynamic Streaming plus addition of new live
streaming info.
1.4 2010-04-09 Simplified Verimatrix solution description. Incorporated modifications from
Adobe
1.5 2010-04-27 Added front cover and finalized for publishing
1.6 2010-05-05 Corrected Apple Live HTTP Streaming Content Flow
1.7 2010-10-12 Removed incorrect reference on Live Ingest in Apple HTTP Live Streaming in
Section 6
1.8 2010-10-15 Formatting changes only
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 4
4. Introduction
Traditionally, telco and cable operator’s video services have been distributed over managed access lines
where the bandwidth required for a good quality of experience has been provisioned and is suitably robust.
However, there are now a huge range of Internet connected devices available which are capable of high
quality video playback. These include laptops and home media centers, smartphones such as the Apple
iPhone, Blueray devices and gaming consoles. These devices are typically connected to un-managed access
networks such as 3G, home networks and WiFi hot spots.
In addition, video content owners are increasingly choosing to make their content available directly on the
Internet via massively popular services such as the BBC iPlayer and HuluTM. Delivery of these services is
typically handled by Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) such as Akamai and Limelight Networks® that deliver
“Over The Top” of operator networks, leading to the description “OTT video services”. Although CDNs
optimize delivery over the transit network, these services are all affected by varying degrees of congestion
when they reach the local operator’s network – the so called “middle and last mile”.
However, demand from consumers to watch video anytime, anywhere has lead to an urgent requirement for
operators and CDNs to be able to deliver video services to these devices with a high Quality of Experience
(QoE). A number of leading companies have developed HTTP Adaptive Streaming technologies to specifically
enable this including Microsoft®, Apple and most recently Adobe®.
This application note provides an overview of the issues that these technologies address and
describes how they are incorporated with Edgeware WTV servers to create a massively scaleable
video delivery solution for these devices.
5. The Issues that HTTP Adaptive Streaming Address
Network Connectivity and Traversal Assurance Requirement
When attempting network connectivity in an un-managed network, routers, firewalls and which ports are
open are unknown. In a home network, there are personal firewalls, possible routers and security software
scanning port activity. In a WiFi hot spot, the port access can be extremely limited due to security concerns.
This is a well known hurdle with network applications and is overcome by using the HTTP protocol for
communication. HTTP uses port 80 for requests. Requests to this port are most likely port to be allowed
through any firewall or router as they are used for all web surfing. As HTTP uses a state-full TCP connection,
any issues that can be incurred by NAT based networks are also overcome.
Bandwidth Management Requirement
Bandwidth consistency is a major issue. If a user is watching a video and someone else on the same network
suddenly decides to perform a file transfer, the available bandwidth for the video can be severely impacted. In
order to maintain a good Quality of Experience, content therefore needs to be encoded at different bit rates
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 5
and the delivery protocol needs to be able to dynamically switch the bit rate with no interruption in playback
or action by the user.
The HTTP protocol is a synchronous client-to-server protocol so only one request can be made for a video file.
Switching bit rates on the fly is therefore not possible in the middle of an HTTP transaction. To overcome this
problem, the video must be sliced up into “chunks.” Each chunk is typically between two to ten seconds of
video. The chunk sizes are such that the reference IFrame at the beginning of each chunk is synchronized.
The delivery server can host several different bit rate encodings of the same video content. Each bit rate
encoding has a separate play list, which is defined by a master playlist. These playlists are typically in an M3U
format and contain the list of chunks in order. When the client detects either insufficient bandwidth or more
available bandwidth, it can switch to either the lower or higher bit rate playlist and download the chunks in
that list. Since each chunk is synchronized with the other bit rate streams, there is a seamless transition
between them so that the video playback is not interrupted. This maintains a high quality user experience.
Multiple Clients and Resolutions
As more and more Internet connected devices appear on the market every month, with greater and greater
capabilities for video browsing and playback, the number of resolutions and bit rates required to support
these devices increases exponentially. Historically, many devices have also communicated via a proprietary
protocol. It is not viable to have separate encoders, DRM systems and delivery servers for each device that
needs to be supported.
HTTP Adaptive streaming enables delivery of multiple resolutions and bit rates over a common, open
protocol. This enables consolidation of the encoder, encryption and delivery server infrastructure to a single
manageable system. New devices can be added simply via a new encoding profile.
Content Security
The traditional broadcast method of restricting access to live content is achieved by encrypting the
transmission stream. This method has been successfully applied to delivery of live video over the Internet:
content is encrypted between the encoder and the server and then again between the server and the client.
However, the risk with this approach is that content is being temporarily written to cache in the server before
immediate retransmission and again is written to the client cache before immediate presentation and
deletion. During these short periods, content is sitting ‘in the clear’ and this presents a security risk. Also, for
VOD and catchup TV services, content will be stored on servers in the network or client devices and must
remain protected to avoid piracy.
HTTP Adaptive streaming enables encryption of the individual chunks of content for both live streaming and
VOD / catchup TV downloads. The content itself is encrypted during or immediately after encoding and
remains so during transmission across networks and when stored on servers or client devices.
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 6
6. HTTP Adaptive Streaming Ecosystem and Architecture
Edgeware provides highly optimized video server technology for integration into a solution for delivery of
video over the Internet. Edgeware\'s strategy is to integrate and ensure interoperability with the best-in-class
providers of other components of the eco system including client devices, conditional access systems, web
portals, encoders and content management systems etc. The elements that Edgeware provides are the video
streaming servers, which are optimized to be highly distributable and scalable. Edgeware also provides an
asset caching and propagation system, which dynamically ensures that the most popular assets are
distributed to servers as close to the subscribers as possible. Finally, Edgeware provides a sophisticated
management system, for configuration, management and monitoring of a complete network of servers.
6.1 Edgeware Video Streaming Servers
The Edgeware WTV server is a combination of an advanced and highly integrated network device and a
complete TCP service delivery platform that includes modular built-in solid state flash storage, hosting up to 6
TB of content and delivering 20Gbps from just 1RU unit. In contrast to generic servers, the product is a small,
highly integrated, high performance and ultra low power appliance, offering a step-change in cost
effectiveness. It is purpose designed to work as both a centralized streaming server or as a distributed cache
for TV content anywhere in a network and offers efficient protocol support for any transmission mode
including all variants of HTTP Adaptive Streaming.
Edgeware appliances enable operators to build a network of highly accelerated video servers which can be
distributed deep into the operators´ networks. Compared with traditional server technologies, Edgeware
appliances provide:
 The smallest form factor and highest reliability available
 Instant 10x peak bandwidth scaling
 Rapid drop-in acceleration at network bottlenecks
 Support for all video business models – Live, nPVR, catch-up TV etc
 Support for all video devices – STBs, Internet TVs, gaming consoles etc.
Edgeware Web TV server
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 7
6.2 Support within the Edgeware Asset Caching & Propagation System
Microsoft® Silverlight®, Apple Quicktime and Adobe® Flash® are the leading frameworks for the creation
and playback of Rich Internet Applications incorporating video. These include server programming tools for
the creation of the presentation portals, tools for the creation of encoders to compress and format video for
Internet delivery and client programming tools for creation of video players on different Internet connected
devices.
All frameworks now support variants of HTTP Adaptive Streaming. The following describes how the
Edgeware asset caching and propagation system supports these variants:
Microsoft® Smooth Streaming (WTV)
The WTV server acts as a reverse (server side) proxy to a Windows Server® running Internet Information
Service 7 with the Media Service 3.0 extension. When running in this mode, caching replaces the need for
Edgeware\'s Convoy asset propagation and this is therefore disabled.
The following is a description of the Smooth ecosystem and content flow:
Microsoft® or 3rd party encoders generate a single contiguous file per bit rate according to the ISO/IEC
14496-12 ISO Base Media File Format (MP4) specification. The files have the *.ismv extension and contain
MP4 video fragments (and audio fragments if the video source also contains audio).
An XML-based server manifest file and a client manifest file is also generated. These describe available bit
rates and other information required by the IIS 7 server and the Silverlight clients
For on-demand Smooth Streaming, following encoding, all these files are copied to the IIS 7 server or are
published if WebDAV is enabled. For Live content, rather than storing the fragments in MP4 containers,
encoders deliver the fragments directly to Live Smooth Streaming publishing points on the IIS 7 server. The
server itself then generates a manifest for clients, based on information provided to it by the encoder.
Smooth Ecosystem and Content Flow
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 8
Requests for on-demand content stored on the IIS 7 server or for live content that is being delivered to a Live
Smooth Streaming publishing point on the IIS 7 server should be directed to the Edgeware WTV server E.g. a
request for an on-demand asset stored on the IIS 7 server with the following URL
http://iismedia7/BigBuckBunny/default.html should be directed to the IP address of the Edgeware server.
In addition, the Client Cache Settings of the IIS 7 server should be enabled to specify the Cache-Control
header. This is used in the IIS 7 server to specify any intermediate caches the conditions and restrictions for
caching of content.
Requests for live and on demand Smooth streams on the IIS 7 server are proxied by the Edgeware WTV
server, ingested via HTTP and cached according to the specified cache Control directives. For a fragment that
has been cached, subsequent requests are served directly from the WTV.
Apple Live HTTP Streaming
There are two modes of operation when supporting Apple Live HTTP streaming in the WTV servers: One for
non-encrypted content and one for encrypted content.
For encrypted content the WTV server does not act as a reverse proxy but instead receives segmented content
pushed directly from an encoder or content store. The architecture is very similar to Smooth Streaming
except the (f)MP4 files are replaced with MPEG-2 Transport Streams (*.ts extension).
A segmenter creates and maintains an index file (*.M3U8 extension) containing a list of the media files. Apple
provides a software segmenter but typically this is included as part of the encoder functionality. The index file
and the stream segments are all pushed to the first WTV server using WebDAV.
WTV Servers can be added as edge caches to this first server and Convoy can be enabled to download
transport stream segments according to their popularity.
Mode 1 – Encrypted Apple HTTP Ecosystem and Content Flow
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 9
For non-encrypted content, encoders deliver a single Transport Stream per bit rate without segmentation but
with synchronized iframes. These can be ingested by the WTV server via FTP, HTTP or even scheduled UDP
multicast for live transmissions. This option significantly reduces core network bandwidth, especially if live
content is to be distributed to multiple servers.
A centralized WTV server can then perform the segmentation and create the index file. WTV Servers can be
added as edge caches to this first server and Convoy can be enabled to download transport stream segments
according to their popularity. Alternatively, each edge WTV server can ingest complete transport streams via
scheduled multicast or according to popularity via Convoy and it can then perform segmentation on the fly.
Mode 2 – Non-Encrypted Apple HTTP Ecosystem and Content Flow
Requests for Apple Live HTTP files should be directed to the IP address of the appropriate Edgeware server.
Client software first reads the index file, based on a URL identifying the stream. This index specifies the
location of the available media files, decryption keys (if applicable), and any alternate streams available. For
the selected stream, the client downloads each available media file in sequence.
This process continues until the client encounters the #EXT-X-ENDLIST tag in the index file. If no #EXT-XENDLIST
tag is encountered, the index file is part of an ongoing broadcast. The client loads a new version of
the index file periodically. The client looks for new media files and encryption keys in the updated index and
adds these URLs to its queue.
Verimatrix VCAS Solution for Enhanced Apple HTTP Live Streaming
The Apple HTTP Live Streaming protocol provides optional encryption of the video chunks using the AES-
128-CBC block encryption algorithm. During encryption a 128-bit key is generated and placed in a “key file”
on a server so it can be downloaded by the client. The location of the key file is given in the playlist. A new key
can be given at any time. When a key file is encountered in the playlist, this key must be used to decrypt each
subsequent chunk until another key file is encountered.
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 10
The URL provided to the client to retrieve the key file is HTTPS. This ensures that the connection to the server
will at least be encrypted, even if it does not have server-side authentication. However, the protocol does not
provide a way to ensure mutual authentication of the HTTPS session. There is no client-side certificate
provisioning built into the protocol and there is no mechanism for the reporting of a unique client identifier
from the device to the server. The lack of either of these features does not allow for enforceable entitlements
against the video content encryption key.
To overcome these security limitations and enable HTTP lives streaming video delivery suitable for a secured
pay-TV service, Edgeware has confirmed interoperability with a security solution provided by Verimatrix.
Using the Verimatrix VCAS 3 system, the 128-bit keys are managed and selectively distributed to the encoder
and authorized clients only. VCAS 3 can support HTTP live streaming in a standalone OTT service
configuration, or can be utilized as part of a unified security head-end supporting multi-screen deployments
pairing OTT delivery alongside IPTV and DVB content distribution. Currently, to support this additional
security, the encoder must perform the segmenting of the chunks prior to encryption and distribution to
Edgeware servers (Mode 1).
Verimatrix VCAS Solution for Enhanced Apple HTTP Live Streaming (picture courtesy of Verimatrix)
There are four major components of the enhanced security solution. These pieces are the Edgeware WTV
server, Live Streaming Encoder, Verimatrix VCASTM Server and the Verimatrix Client.
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 11
Live Streaming Encoder
The Live Streaming Encoder is responsible for receiving the video and encoding it into different bit-rates. The
Envivio 4CasterTM C4 has been tested for interoperability with the other components of this system. Once the
different bit-rates are encoded, they are sliced up into chunks which are synchronized and assigned sequence
numbers. At this point, the chunks are ready for encryption. The encoder, or other sub-system responsible
for encryption, will contact the Verimatrix VCAS Server and request the key for this particular piece of content
at the current “now” time. The encoder then takes this key and encrypts each chunk with AES-CBC-128
encryption. The encoder will request the key from the VCAS Server with the “now” time for every chunk. This
will ensure the key mutation interval is enforced. If the key is new, the key file URL will be written to the play
list. The sequence number of each chunk is used as the initialization vector of the CBC encryption. These
encrypted chunks are then placed on the Edgeware WTV Server.
While the chunks are being encrypted, the play lists for each bit-rate are being generated at the same time.
These play lists contain the URLs to the chunked files, in sequence, on the Edgeware server. For each new key
that is received from VCAS, the encoder will insert a “key file” URL. This key file URL points to the VCAS
Server and contains the channel identifier and the time that they key was retrieved from the VCAS Server by
the encoder.
Verimatrix VCAS Server
The Verimatrix VCAS Server is responsible for the secure generation and authorized distribution of the keys
used for chunk encryption. The keys to be used for encryption (typically performed by the encoder device
responsible for segmentation) are provided to the encoder via a pre-defined interface [1]. The request for the
key will be accompanied by the channel identifier and the key time, which is supplied by the play list written
by the Live Streaming Encoder.
When accessing the VCAS key server for decryption keys, the Verimatrix ViewRight client provides a unique
device identifier. This information is used by the VCAS Server to determine entitlement to the key for the
particular channel. This entitlement check is performed against the middleware server. Upon determining
that the client device is entitled to access to the content (e.g., a paid channel subscription, VoD asset, etc.), the
VCAS server will securely transfer the key to be used for chunk decryption.
Verimatrix ViewRight Web OTT Client
The Verimatrix ViewRight Web Client (for PC/Mac, iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, STBs, etc.) executes on the
device that will be registered with the middleware server. The Verimatrix Viewright Client will provide a
unique identifier of the device and thus ensure proper device authentication prior to entilement checking and
key distribution by the VCAS server. This unique identifier will need to be registered with the middleware /
billing server via a process determined by the operator. After entitlement verification and secure key
download to the device, the ViewRight client will provide the required keys to the decryption engine,
resulting in a decrypted stream to be displayed by the player application.
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 12
Adobe® HTTP Dynamic Streaming
The WTV server acts as a reverse (server side) proxy to an Apache Server running the Adobe® Origin Module
(VOD) or an Adobe® Flash® Media Server 4.0. When running in this mode, caching replaces the need for
Convoy asset propagation and this is therefore disabled.
The following is a description of the Adobe® HTTP Dynamic Streaming ecosystem and content flow:
Adobe® or 3rd party encoders generate a single contiguous file per bit rate using the following file types:
F4V/MP4 compatible files and FLV. For VOD content, an Adobe® File Packager command line tool is used to
parse the file and translate it into fragments. This tool can also be used to encrypt files for use with Adobe®
Flash® Access 2.0 DRM. Once created (and encrypted if used) fragments are written to files with the *.f4f
extension. Each file can contain multiple fragments and quantity and duration of fragments per file can be
optimized.
An XML-based client manifest file is created with the filename of the input file. This contains information
about the codec, resolution and the availability of multi-bitrate files. In addition, a server index file is also
generated. This contains information on the specific location of fragments within a file for the Origin Module
to translate to byte range requests.
Adobe® HTTP Dynamic Streaming Ecosystem and Content Flow
For VOD, requests for content stored on the Apache Origin server should be directed to the Edgeware WTV
server E.g. a request for an on-demand asset stored on the server with the following URL
http://localhost/media/webplayer.html should be directed to the IP address of the Edgeware server.
In addition, the Client Cache Settings of the Apache server should be enabled to specify the Cache-Control
header. This is used in the Apache server to specify any intermediate caches the conditions and restrictions
for caching of content.
Requests for on demand streams on the Apache Origin server are proxied by the Edgeware WTV server,
ingested via HTTP and cached according to the specified cache Control directives. For a fragment that has
been cached, subsequent requests are served directly from the WTV.
HTTP Adaptive Streaming Using Edgeware Video Appliances / Whitepaper / ⓒ Edgeware AB 2010 / Version1.8-A4-Oct2010 Page 13
For live streams, the Apache Origin is incorporated into the Flash® Media Interactive Server. (FMIS) Live
streams are ingested over RTMP and segmented into *.f4f files. The FMIS server has a built in Apache HTTP
Server and uses the Origin Module to deliver the live content over HTTP. Requests for live streams are
proxied by the Edgeware WTV server and cached in the same way as on demand streams.
6.3 Edgeware Origin Management System
The Origin Management system provides a centralized tool for monitoring and configuring Edgeware video
server systems. A web-based user interface provides status and statistics for a system in operation as well a
central portal for accessing the configuration tools of each server. It is possible to look at information from
individual servers or aggregated data from a multi-server system. Since a web-based interface is used the
management tools can be accessed from any computer with a web browser and network access to the Origin
server.
Origin is built around a database, where status and statistics data is stored. All servers send status
information to Origin using standard syslog messages. The user interface provides both live status views and
historical views, as graphs and lists.
Origin Management system
Origin is an optional tool that simplifies monitoring and management of Edgeware video servers. However, no
functionality in the video servers relies on the use of Origin. Configuration of servers can be done by directly
accessing the web configuration tool in each video server. Monitoring can be provided by third-party tools
using either the SNMP interface available in all servers or by listening to the syslog messages.
7. References
[1] Verimatrix HTTP Live Streaming Interface Control Document (ICD).
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