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Our previous document described the NAT behavior discovery algorithms defined in RFC 3489. This document will explain what algorithms for discovering NAT behaviors are defined in RFC 5780. Again, to fully understand what's discussed below, we recommend you read the following posts first: 1. NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) - Part 1. Mapping Behavior 2....
11/18/2013
37,130
NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) Part 1. Mapping Behavior Part 2. Filtering Behavior Part 3. Deterministic Properties Many applications like Skype, online games, etc. are all Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications based on UDP. When running these applications, two devices communicate with each other without a...
09/12/2013
34,191
Let us introduce the NAT behavior discovery algorithms defined in RFC 3489. To fully understand what's discussed below, we recommend you read the following posts first: 1. NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) - Part 1. Mapping Behavior 2. NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) - Part 2. Filtering Behavior 3. STUN (RFC 3489) vs. STUN (R...
11/04/2013
41,349
Today, NATs are employed by Korean telecom operators in almost all of their access networks except for wired access networks (FTTH, Ethernet, DSL, etc.). 3G/LTE network: Large Scale NAT (LSN) installed beyond GGSN/P-GW in the 3G/LTE core networks. Also called "Carrier Grade NAT (CGN)". Wi-Fi Hotspot network: NAT implemented in Wi-Fi hotspot AP. Residential network: NAT implemented in su...
09/03/2013
32,067
NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) Part 1. Mapping Behavior Part 2. Filtering Behavior Part 3. Deterministic Properties This is the last post on RFC 4787. 4. Application Level Gateway For information about Application Level Gateways (ALGs), please click here....
10/10/2013
31,345
What are the differences between NAT types defined in RFC 3489 and RFC 5780? To understand the differences to be explained below, you must be familiar with the Mapping Behavior and Filtering Behavior of a NAT that we covered last time. What is STUN? STUN is a protocol that allows two devices (P2P devices) to discover the presence and types of a NAT between them, and to find out what Exte...
10/21/2013
44,593
NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) Part 1. Mapping Behavior Part 2. Filtering Behavior Part 3. Deterministic Properties Now that we learned a NAT's mapping behaviors last time, below we will study its filtering behaviors as defined in RFC 4787. For information about the terms used below (Internal En...
09/23/2013
32,516
Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. NAS Security 3. AS Security 4. Security Context 5. Closing and References 1. Introduction In LTE Security I[1], Part I of the LTE Security technical document, we have discussed LTE authentication based on EPS AKA procedure and learned a UE and an MME get to share the KASME when authenticated. In this document, w...
08/05/2013
221,302
Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Cell Reselection: Required System Information and Criteria 2.1 Overview of Cell Reselection Procedure 2.2 System Information 2.3 Cell Reselection Criteria 3. Cell Reselection without TAU 4. EPS Entity Information: Before/After Cell Reselection without TAU 5. Closing 1. Introduction Through the three compa...
04/23/2014
102,607
Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Configuration Provisioning 3. Service Capability Discovery 4. One to One Chat 5. Group Chat 6. File Transfer 7. Geolocation Sharing 8. vCard Exchange 9. Contents Sharing 10. Integrated Messaging 11. IP Voice Call (Voice over Wi-Fi Call) 12. IP Video Call 13. Summary 1. Introductio...
01/22/2014
22,688
Thierry Van de Velde​ Consulting Technology Specialist at Nokia www.linkedin.com/in/thierryvandevelde All Articles by Thierry Van de Velde​ How to contribute your article to Netmanias.com ! List...
02/12/2018
15,294
Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. EMM Case 10. Move to Another City 3. EMM Case 11. Initial Attach in Another City 4. EPS Entity Information 5. Closing 1. Introduction UE attempts a handover or cell reselection when the received signal strength from its serving cell becomes weak as it moves. If there is no neighbor cell at all near the travelling UE,...
06/11/2014
91,246
Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Procedures for Detecting IP Address Conflicts III. DHCP Offer/ACK Messages: Broadcast or Unicast ? IV. State Transition of DHCP Clients I. Overview Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) has been widely adopted as a protocol for allocating network configuration data, including an IP address, dynamically to...
10/30/2013
79,643
Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Classification of LTE Identification 3. Identifiers for User Equipment (UEI IDs) 4. Identifiers for Mobile Equipement (ME IDs) 5. Closing and References 1. Introduction In LTE network, different IDs are used to identify each entity depending on their relationship with other IDs just like different names and titles ar...
08/20/2013
159,501
Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. LTE Security Concept 3. LTE Authentication Procedure 4. Closing and References 1. Introduction Wireless communication, in its nature, is always at a risk of eavesdropping or manipulation because data originally sent from/to a user may be received and unlawfully used by an unintended user. Locations or traveling routes...
07/31/2013
222,314
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