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Our previous document described the NAT behavior discovery algorithms defined in RFC 3489. This document will explain what algorithms for discovering NAT behaviors are defined in RFC 5780. Again, to fully understand what's discussed below, we recommend you read the following posts first: 1. NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) - Part 1. Mapping Behavior 2....
11/18/2013
30,566
Table of Contents I. Overview II. Introduction to DHCP Proxy Agents III. Basic Operations of DHCP Proxy Agents IV. Security Functios of DHCP Proxy Agents V. Summary and Closing Appendix A - Format of DHCP Messages in IP Address Allocation/Lease Procedure Appendix B - Format of DHCP Messages in IP Address Renewal Procedure Appendix C - Format of DHC...
11/07/2013
42,555
Table of Contents I. Overview II. Why are DHCP Relay Agents Needed in DHCP Operations ? III. Basic Operation of DHCP Relay Agents Appendix - Format of DHCP Messages in a Network with DHCP Relay Agents I. Overview This document provides a technical understanding of a DHCP relay agent that is required in a multi-subnet environment where a DHCP client...
11/05/2013
145,234
Let us introduce the NAT behavior discovery algorithms defined in RFC 3489. To fully understand what's discussed below, we recommend you read the following posts first: 1. NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) - Part 1. Mapping Behavior 2. NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) - Part 2. Filtering Behavior 3. STUN (RFC 3489) vs. STUN (R...
11/04/2013
32,121
Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Procedures for Detecting IP Address Conflicts III. DHCP Offer/ACK Messages: Broadcast or Unicast ? IV. State Transition of DHCP Clients I. Overview Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) has been widely adopted as a protocol for allocating network configuration data, including an IP address, dynamically to...
10/30/2013
61,759
Table of Contents I. Introduction II. IP Address Allocation/Lease Procedure III. IP Address Renewal Procedure IV. IP Address Release Procedure V. Summary VI. Closing Appendix A - Format of DHCP Messages in IP Address Allocation/Lease Procedure Appendix B - Format of DHCP Messages in IP Address Renewal Procedure Appendix C - Format of DHCP Me...
10/23/2013
216,333
What are the differences between NAT types defined in RFC 3489 and RFC 5780? To understand the differences to be explained below, you must be familiar with the Mapping Behavior and Filtering Behavior of a NAT that we covered last time. What is STUN? STUN is a protocol that allows two devices (P2P devices) to discover the presence and types of a NAT between them, and to find out what Exte...
10/21/2013
31,953
NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) Part 1. Mapping Behavior Part 2. Filtering Behavior Part 3. Deterministic Properties This is the last post on RFC 4787. 4. Application Level Gateway For information about Application Level Gateways (ALGs), please click here....
10/10/2013
23,884
NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) Part 1. Mapping Behavior Part 2. Filtering Behavior Part 3. Deterministic Properties Now that we learned a NAT's mapping behaviors last time, below we will study its filtering behaviors as defined in RFC 4787. For information about the terms used below (Internal En...
09/23/2013
26,408
NAT Behavioral Requirements, as Defined by the IETF (RFC 4787) Part 1. Mapping Behavior Part 2. Filtering Behavior Part 3. Deterministic Properties Many applications like Skype, online games, etc. are all Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications based on UDP. When running these applications, two devices communicate with each other without a...
09/12/2013
26,926
Today, NATs are employed by Korean telecom operators in almost all of their access networks except for wired access networks (FTTH, Ethernet, DSL, etc.). 3G/LTE network: Large Scale NAT (LSN) installed beyond GGSN/P-GW in the 3G/LTE core networks. Also called "Carrier Grade NAT (CGN)". Wi-Fi Hotspot network: NAT implemented in Wi-Fi hotspot AP. Residential network: NAT implemented in su...
09/03/2013
26,058
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